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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (85)
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1

In what bone is the supraorbital notch?

Frontal bone

2

In what bone is the optic canal?

Sphenoid bone

3

In what bone is the infraorbital foramen?

Maxilla

4

In what direction does the optic canal lie?

Medially

5

Which walls of the orbit are thin?

Medial wall
Orbital floor - maxilla

6

What surrounds the globe in the orbit?

Periorbital fat

7

Name the muscle, and its parts, which makes up the external later of the eye

Orbicularis oculi
Palpebral
Orbital

8

What does the orbital septum do?

Separates the superficial layer from the deep.

9

What is the orbital septum made from?

Thickened connective tissue

10

What does the tarsus do?

Gives shape to eyelid
Contains tarsal glands which produces lipids that stop tears from overflowing

11

Where is the lacrimal gland?

Superolateral to the globe

12

What is the hole in the posteromedial eyelid called?

Punctum

13

What is the conjunctival fornix?

Angle where lower eyelid meets conjunctiva

14

What is the limbus?

Where sclera meets cornea

15

Where does the lacrimal sac drain to?

Nasolacrimal duct

16

Where does nasolacrimal duct empty?

Inferior meatus

17

What nerve innervates the lacrimal gland?

Parasympathetic of CNVII

18

What makes up the outer layer of eye?

Sclera
Cornea

19

What is the middle layer of eye?

Uvea

20

What is contained in the urea?

Iris
Ciliary body
Choroid

21

What is within the retina?

Macula
Optic disc

22

What are the segments of the eye?

Anterior
Posterior

23

Where is the anterior segment?

In front of the lens

24

The anterior segment is divided into anterior and posterior chamber.
What is in the anterior chamber?

Aqueous humour.
Between cornea and iris

25

Where is the posterior chamber?

Between iris and suspensory ligaments

26

What is contained in the posterior segment?

Vitreous humour

27

What is the iridocorneal angle?

Angle between the iris and the cornea. Different from limbus!

28

What does the ciliary body do?

Constricts and dilates the pupil

29

Where is aqueous humour produced?

Ciliary body

30

What is the pathway for aqueous humour?

Circulates in posterior chamber to nourish lens
Pass through pupil - nourish cornea
Reabsorbed into Canal of Schlemm

31

Where is canal of schlemm?

Iridocorneal angle

32

What is canal of Schlemm?

Scleral venous sinus

33

What nerve supplies the optic disc?

CNII

34

What is the macula?

High density of cones

35

What area has the most acute vision?

Fovea

36

What is the blind spot?

No rods or cones.
In the optic disc

37

Where are the retinal vessels in relation to the photoreceptors?

Anterior to photoreceptors

38

Where does the ophthalmic artery come from?

Internal carotid

39

Where do ciliary arteries supply?

Choroid - the vessels which can be seen inflammed in conjunctivitis

40

Which is the main artery to the retina?

Central retinal artery

41

What is the danger triangle?

Upper lip and external nose.
Likely to burst a vein here which could cause infection going to brain

42

Which veins drain the orbit?

Facial vein
Superior and Inferior ophthalmic vein

43

Where does the orbit drain to?

Cavernous sinus

44

Where do all the extra ocular muscles originate from?

Tendinous ring

45

Which muscle is involved with the trochlea?

Superior oblique

46

What is the trochlea made of?

Cartilage

47

What is the purpose of the suspensory ligament of the eye?

Sling which holds the eye in the orbit

48

When fractured, how does the zygoma rotate?

Medially

49

What structure is at risk if the zygoma rotates medially?

Infraorbital NVB

50

Where is the infraorbital NVB?

In the infraorbital canal

51

Where, precisely, does CN V1 innervate?

Upper eyelid
Cornea
Conjunctiva
anterior surface of nose

52

Where, precisely, does CN V2 innervate?

Skin of lower eyelid
Maxilla
Ala of the nose
Upper lip

53

What nerve supplies the angle of the mandible?

C2, C3

54

Where are action potentials from the cornea directed to?

Trigeminal ganglion to CN V to the pons

55

How does the eyelid close in the blink reflex?

Connections between CN V and CN VII means that APs are conducted to the palpebral part of orbicularis oculi

56

In sympathetic nerves, where doe the pre and post synaptic axon synapse?

At the ganglion in the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk

57

Which neurotransmitters are involved in sympathetic outflow?

Presynaptically, acetylcholine
Postsynaptically, noradrenaline

58

Where do presynaptic sympathetic axons exit the spinal cord?

At T1
Then ascend to the cervical sympathetic trunk

59

What are the 3 parts of the cervical sympathetic trunk?

Superior
Middle
Inferior ganglia

60

Where do the presympathetic axons synapse?

Superior cervical ganglion

61

Where do the post-synaptic axons go?

They enter the internal and external carotid nerves which are on the surfaces of the arteries

62

Which artery carries sympathetic postsynaptic axons to the eye?

Ophthalmic artery

63

Where does the ophthalmic artery come from?

Internal carotid artery

64

Anatomically, where is the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion?

On the posterior side of the superior constrictor

65

What is the stellate ganglion?

Fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion with the 1st thoracic ganglion

66

Which 4 cranial nerves are involved in parasympathetic innervation?

3, 7, 9 and 10

67

Which neurotransmitter is involved in synapses in parasympathetic axons?

Acetylcholine, both pre and post synaptically

68

Where is the parasympathetic ganglion?

Within the target organ

69

Which other nerves are parasympathetic supply important in?

Sacral spinal nerves

70

How do presynaptic parasympathetic leave the CNS?

Leave with their respective cranial nerves

71

What motor function does the inferior branch of CN III have?

Innervates medial and inferior rectus and inferior oblique and ciliary ganglion

72

What motor function does the superior branch of CN III have?

Superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris

73

What are the ciliary ganglion?

Supply ciliary nerves, autonomic axons, to control the diameter of the pupil

74

What are the two divisions of the ciliary nerve?

Long ciliary nerve
Short ciliary nerve

75

What does the long ciliary nerve do?

Sympathetic and somatic sensory nerve

76

What does the short ciliary nerve do?

Sympathetic and somatic sensory and parasympathetic

77

Which ciliary nerve is involved in the blink reflex?

Long ciliary

78

What is the accommodation reflex?

Focussing the lens to far and near

79

What is the vestibulo-ocular reflex?

Ability to focus on an object while head is turned.

80

Which functions of the eye is parasympathetic ally controlled?

Less light into eyes by pupillary constriction
Focus on near objects
Reflex lacrimation

81

Which structure contains both skeletal and smooth muscle?

Levator palpebrae superioris

82

Which fibres are responsible for pupillary constriction?

Circular sphincter or pupillae fibres in the internal circumference

83

What is the consensual light reflex?

Other eye will constrict in the presence of indirect light

84

Which nerves are responsible for the direct and consensual light reflexes?

Afferent ipsilateral CN II connects in thalamus to produce a bilateral motor response via CN III

85

See rest of that lecture for rest

Light reflexes are complicated