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Ophthamology > Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Trauma Deck (30)
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1

What chemical can be used to see the the epithelium of the eye?

Fluorescein

2

What is a blowout fracture?

Fracture of inferior wall of orbit

3

Which wall of the orbit is commonly the thinnest?

Medial wall

4

What structure should you be worried about in a blow out fracture?

Infraorbital neurovascular bundle

5

How should a possible globe rupture be handled?

Carefully! Don't apply too much pressure

6

What is uveitis?

Inflammation of middle layer which includes iris, ciliary body and choroid

7

What are the signs of traumatic uveitis?

Photophobia
Dilated pupils

8

What is hyphaema?

Blood in the anterior chamber

9

What does a hyphaema look like?

A meniscal level of the inferior iris.

10

How does hyphaema cause raised interglobular pressure?

Increased volume in globe.
Cells clog trabecular meshwork at canal of Schlemm and prevent efficient drainage

11

What does a retinal detachment look like?

Tortuous vessels
Fold-like appearance with fluid under retina

12

What symptoms may the patient have with retinal detachment?

Flashes
Floaters

13

How might a choroidal tear appear on fundoscopy?

White semi circular line adjacent to the optic disc

14

What is commotio retinae?

A bruised retina.
Settles itself in weeks.

15

What is an optic nerve avulsion?

The nerve separates from the globe leaving zero vision.
Caused by blunt trauma

16

What is the difference in penetrating and perforating?

Perforating- injury goes whole way through the structure.
Penetrating- single sided injury

17

What is sympathetic ophthalmia?

When a penetrating injury to one eye causes an auto-immune reaction in both eyes.

18

How is a sub-tarsal foreign body treated?

Invert the eyelid and remove body

19

How is a corneal foreign body treated?

Local anaesthetic and use a needle as a spatula to remove

20

When is a penetrating foreign body suspected?

If irregular pupil, gross inflammation or localised cataract.

21

Why do cataracts form in a foreign body?

If the body touches the lens

22

What investigation should be done for an intra-ocular foreign body?

X ray

23

What is the difference in an alkali burn and an acid burn?

Alkali quickly penetrates intraocular structures.
Acid coagulates proteins on surface but no further

24

Would you rather have an acid burn or an alkali burn?

Acid.
Not as damaging!

25

What system is used to check the chemicals in the substance that caused the burn?

ToxBase

26

Why do alkali burns penetrate the eye more quickly?

Tend to be lipophilic.
Tissue secretes proteolytic enzymes which enhances the damage

27

What does limbal ischaemia denote?

Poor prognostic factor in alkali burns

28

What can limbal ischaemia lead to?

Corneal scarring
Corneal vascularisation
Adhesions

29

How are chemical burns best treated?

Quick history and check of substance
Check pH
Irrigate +++

30

What should the pH of the eye be?

pH 7