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Ophthamology > Visual loss > Flashcards

Flashcards in Visual loss Deck (31)
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1

Which arteries supply the eye?

Central retinal artery
Posterior ciliary artery

2

Where does the central retinal get its supply from?

Ophthalmic artery

3

Where does the ophthalmic artery come from?

Internal carotid artery

4

What does the posterior ciliary artery supply?

Photoreceptors and pigment layer

5

Which is more common:
Central retinal artery occlusion
Central retinal vein occlusion

Vein

6

How does a vessel occlusion present?

Sudden loss of total vision
Painless

7

What is the treatment for a vessel occlusion?

If within 3 hours then can possibly make it a branch occlusion
If not then nothing

8

What does a CRAO look like on fundoscopy?

Pale oedematous retina
thread like vessels

9

What should be done in a vessel occlusion?

ECG
Look for AF.
Consider risk factors for stroke

10

What is amaurosis fugax?

Transient painless visual loss for 5 minutes.
Like a curtain coming down.

11

How is amaurosis fugax managed?

Referral to TIA clinic.
Aspirin

12

What does a CRVO look like on fundoscopy?

Retinal haemorrhages
Dilated tortuous veins
Disc swelling

13

What is ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Posterior ciliary arteries occluded- infarction of optic nerve head

14

With what condition is ischaemic optic neuropathy associated?

GCA

15

What symptoms does ION present with?

Sudden visual loss.
Counting fingers
Irreversible blindness

16

How is unilateral ION prevented from becoming bilateral?

High dose oral steroid

17

If haemorrhages occur from abnormal vessels what conditions is this associated with?

Diabetic retinopathy
Retinal vein occlusion

18

How are abnormal vessels prevented?

Anti-VGEF

19

If bleeding occurs from normal vessels, what is the cause?

Retinal tear

20

What are the symptoms and signs of a vitreous haemorrhage?

Loss of vision
Floaters
Loss of red reflex
HMG seen on fundoscopy

21

What are flashes and floaters associated with?

Retinal detachment

22

How is retinal detachment managed?

Surgical

23

If there is a retinal detachment superiorly, where is the visual loss?

Inferiorly

24

What is the difference in wet and dry age related macular degeneration?

Wet is sudden and due to haemorrhage
Dry is very gradual

25

What are the signs of wet ARMD?

Rapid central visual loss
Distortion (metamorphopsia)

26

How is wet ARMD managed?

Anti-VGEF
Steroids

27

What is a scotoma?

Parts of vision missing

28

What is drusen?

Build up of waste products around optic disc making it bumpy and yellow

29

What is the treatment for dry ARMD?

No treatment.
Support with reading

30

Why is a closed angle glaucoma an emergency?

Will raise IOP and cause blindness

31

What are some causes of cataracts?

Age
Diabetes
Steroids
Congenital