Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (39)
What kind of drugs do the corneal epithelium like?
What kind of drugs do the corneal stroma like?
Which drug has both a lipophilic and hydrophilic component
How can a drug be made more lipophilic?
Addition of an alcohol
How can drugs be made more hydrophillic?
Addition of a phosphate group
Which steroid is given for an uninflamed cornea?
Acetate group - hydrophobic so good in the epithelium.
Which steroid is given for corneal disease?
Phosphate- hydrophillic so good in the stroma
How can hydrophilic drugs be better absorbed into the stroma?
It disrupts the lipid layer of the tear film
What is the name of the benzalkonium?
How are topical steroids incorporated systemically?
Tears spread the topical drug into the punctum which leads to the nasopharynx so is swallowed
How can steroids be prevented from spreading systemically?
Pressing on punctum (nasal side) stops the drops getting to the nasopharynx.
What side effect may be present with topical steroids?
Bad taste in mouth
When are steroids given intravitreally?
Wet macular degeneration
When are topical steroids used? (3)
Post op cataracts to prevent inflammation
Preventing corneal graft rejection
What are the signs of uveitis?
WBC on slit lamp
What signs are bad in a corneal graft?
New blood vessels.
Graft rejection line - darker infiltrate inferiorly
What are the local side effects of steroids?
Exacerbation of viral infection
In what infective ocular process should steroids not be used?
What systemic side effects can steroids cause?
What dosage of steroids should be given for temporal arteritis?
What is glaucoma?
Progressive optic neuropathy resulting in loss of peripheral vision
What are the risk factors for getting glaucoma?
What is thought to cause glaucoma?
A raised intracranial pressure
What investigation needs to be done in glaucoma?
Visual field test.
If double sided then driving is not allowed.
Which glaucoma treatment can be given by drops?
Pilocarpine - miotic
Timolol - B blocker
What is acetazolamide?
reduces ICP by reducing production of aqueous humour. Given IV/IM.
What is important to note with latanoprost?
Can change the colour of the iris
Which drug is given first in glaucoma?
Prostanoids e.g. latanoprost
What is anti-VEGF given for?
To prevent new blood vessels from forming
When are drugs given intra-vitreally?
Why can local anaesthetic not be used regularly?
Stops epithelium from regenerating so prevents healing
How and why is fluorescein used?
With a blue light.
Shows corneal abrasion
What is tonometry?
How can fluorescein be used to diagnose nasolacrimal duct obstruction?
Will run out of lateral sides of eye instead of into the puncture.
How do mydriatics work?
Cause pupil dilation by blocking parasympathetic (CN III) supply to ciliary muscles
What damage can ethambutol cause to the eye?
What drug can cause maculopathy?
Hydroxychloroquine now used.
What drug can cause tears to turn red?