Anatomy 70% Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 70% Deck (62):

azygos vein-location, function, excess flow results in, pts with portal HTN are at risk for

-right anterolateral aspect of spine
-major portal tributary
-excess flow= congestion of esophageal venous plexus
-portal HTN= increase risk of variceal rupture ()-high risk of recurrence and mortality


site of anastomoses/portal/caval/clinical sign

portal-paraumbiilcal veins
caval-superficial veins of anterior abdominal wall
cs-caput medusa


site of anastomoses/poratl/caval/clinical sign

portal-superior rectal veins (inferior mesenteric veins)
caval- inferior rectal veins (internal iliac vein)
cs-internal hemorrhoids


site of anastomoses/portal/caval/clinical signs

portal-esophageal veins (l. gastric veins)
caval-veins of the thoracic esophagus which drain into azygos system
cs-esophageal varices


location of spleen vs
kidney vs
lungs and pleural space

lungs and pleural space are above spleen
-spleen-l. upper quadrant along 9th, 10th, and 1th ribs (at posterior axillary line)
-kidney below rib 11 and medical to posterior axillary line


sagiittal sinus thrombosis-assoiciation (1), clincal symp (4)

hypercoaguable states (pregancy and few wks postpartum)
-increased intracranial pressure, seizures, parasagittal hemorrhages, and infarcts (decrease cerebral perfusion)


dorsal column vs dorsal horn

dorsal column contains axons from the DCML, whose cell body is in the DRG
-dorsal horn contains cell bodies of sencondary afferents of spinothalamic tract- fibers cross in anterior commonsure and ascend in contralateral spinothalamic tract (anterior column sort of)

horns=cell bodies


layers lumbar puncture needle travels through.
epidural anesthesia vs spinal anesthesia

skin, superficial layer, deep fascia, supraspinous ligamet, interspinous ligamnet, ligamentum flavum, epidural space, dura (hear a small pop), arachnoid, and subarachnoid space.

epidural anesthesia-anesthesia into epidural space- before pop
spinal anesthesia-same place a spinal puncture-after pop


thoracic outlet syndrome- signs, treatment, risk of treatment

-affects structures found in scalene triangle (1st rib, anterior and middle scalene m.)
numbness and pain on medial aspect of forearm and hand, weakness of muscles innervated by ulnar nerve (claw hand), decreased blood flow to upper limb (weakened radial pulse-compression of subclavian artery), Horner's syndrome and hoarseness (compression of sympathetic trunk or recurrent laryngeal nerve)

incision of anterior scalene muscle (compression of lower brachial plexus trunk and subclavian artery between anterior scalene muscle and middle scalene m.)

phrenic nerve lies on anterior surface of anterior scalene m.- paralysis of half of diaphragm


innervation of superior laryngeal vs reccurent laryngeal nerve

superior-cricothyroid muscle of larynx
recurrent- all instrinsic muscle of larynx except cricothyroid


which edge is the free edge of lesser omentum?contains (3 important structures)

on the right edge. common bile duct, hepatic artery and portal vein


common causes of carpal tunnel syndrome.
anterior border and posterior border of carpal tunnel

pregnancy, RA, hypothyroidism (myxedmea of the carpal tunnel), acromegaly (synovial tendon hyperplasia), obesity
-anterior-flexor retinaculum
-posterior-carpal bones


most PE arise from what veins? give examples (2)

deep veins of lower extremity
deep veins arise from common femoral vein-splits into deep and superficial branches (i.e. superficial vein is part of the deep venous system-even though it's called superficial)


location of lesion in "drunken sailor gait"

vermis of cerebellum- loss of truncal ataxia


which nerve is blocked during labor? near what bony structure?

pudendal, near ishial spine
-usually given during 2nd stage of labor just before delivery


kussmal sign vs pulsus paradoxus

-increase in systemic venous pressure on inspiration (constrictive pericarditis)
-decrease >10-15 mmHg ins systolic pressure with inspiration (cardiac tamponade)


lateral and medial pectoral nerves branch from what parts of the brachial plexus

medial and lateral cords respectivitely


pt that's bed-bound for a long time presents with inability to dorsiflex right foot and loss of sensation on dorsum of foot and foot inversion.

nerve problem and normal function of nerve.
relation of being bed-bound.

damage to common peroneal nerve (splits to become superficial peroneal and deep peroneal nerves)
-common to injury due to superficial location at neck of fibula. (conpression for lying on bed too long)
-responsible for extroversion of foot, dorsiflexion, and sensation of dorsum of foot


sensation of tibial nerve vs common peroneal nerve

both branch from siatic nerve

tibial-sole of foot
common peroneal-dorsum of foot


gag reflex arc (afferent and efferent)

-afferent CN 9
-efferent CN 10


CN responsible for salivation

other funtions
-taste nd tactile sensation of posterior 1/3 of tongue
-tactile sensation from external ear, pharynx, middle ear and auditory
-input from carotid sinus/body
-motor efferent to stylopharyngeus muscle


direct vs indirect hernia

-all pass through superficial inguinal ring, only indirect passes through deep inguinal ring
-direct emerges through fascia transversalis (posterior wall of inguinal canal). it's goes through inguinal triangle (medial to epigastic vessels )
-indirect are associated with failed closure of "processus vaginalis) (connection b/t abdomen and ingiunal canal)- usually seen in children.

note* patent processus vaginalis is also associated with hydroceles


inguinal triangle (lateral, medial, and inferior border)

aka triangle of Hesselbach
-inferior epigastric artery
-lateral border of rectus abdominus
-inguinal ligament


painful direct hernia indicates?

direct hernias are usually asymptomatic. if painful then think bowel strangulation- can lead to bowel ischemia and surgery is indicated


location of femoral hernia (femoral artery/inguinal canal)

-medial to femoral artery
-below inguinal ligament
-more common in women

note both inguinal hernia pass above inguinal ligmanet


which wall of inguinal canal does inguinal ligament form?

roof=internal abdominal oblique/transverse abdominus muscles
anterior=aponeurosis of external abdominal oblique
floor=inguinal ligament
posterior=transversalis fascia/conjoined tendon


what muscles does median nerve lie between

palmaris longus, and flexor carpi radialis


which nerve travels through cubital tunnel

ulnar- passed behind medial epicondule and crosses elbow through this structure


flattening of thenar eminence vs flattening of hypothenar muscles

-loss of median nerve (thenar muscles)
-loss of ulnar nerve (dorsal and palmar interosseous muscles)


dislocation of elbow results in deviation of ulnar and humerus bones how- damage to which nerves

ulnar bone deviates posteiorly-ulnar nerve
-humerus displaces anteriorly (fill in later)


function of deep fibular nerve

injury causes foot drop


function of superior gluteal nerve

hip abduction- helps to stabilize pelvis and prevent Trendenburg gait


pt bumps into walls and objects on one side with visual acuity 20/20 and no other problems has an occlusion of PCA and not middle cerebral because

PCA occlusion leads to homonymous hemianopsia with macular sparing
-middle cerebral infarct- hemiparesis (supplies motor strip), language dysfunction


where should intercostal nerve block be performed

below the rib and lateral to the angle of the rib, why? b/c the nerve lies in the costal groove of the corresponding rib after passing the angle of the rib


name and location of branches of femoral artery name and location of branch of the branches of femoral artery
-tibial, peroneal, and popliteal, dorsalis pedis
-where does femoral art branch from?

femoral continues into the popliteal artery after exiting the adductor hiatus
popliteal descends behind knee joint and becomes anterior and posterior tibial arteries at lower border of politeus muscle. the peroneal (aka fibular) artery is a branch of the posterior tibial artery in upper leg. dorsalis pedus is a branch of anterior tibial artery

femoral artery branches off of external iliac


when eye is abducted which muscles work alone to elevate and depress the eye
when the eye is adducted which muscles work alone to elevate and depress the eye

-elevate: superior rectus, and depress: inferior rectus
-elevate: inferior oblique, and depress superior oblique


function of oblique eye muscles

superior-depress and abducts the eye (CN 4)
inferior-elevates and abducts the eye (CN 3)

vs superior and inferior rectus which both adduct the eye and elevate and depress respectively


pain over the anatomic snuffbox indicates a fracture in what carpal bone?

scaphoid (falling on outstreched hands)- must be addressed to restore blood flow and avoid avascular necrosis of proximal portion of bone due to retrograde flow


name three main branches of aorta after the inferior phrenica arteries that supply the hemidiaphragm

superior mesenteric
inferior mesenteric


name branches of celiac trunk , which branch supplies the head and tail of pancreas

left gastric art-
splenic art-body and tail of pancreas,
common hepatic art


nerves involved in anterior compartment syndrome
-describe there presentation

superior peroneal nerve-weekness of eversion of foot and decreased sensation over most of the dorsum of the foot except first web space

-deep peroneal nerve-loss of dorsiflexion, and extension of toes, and inversion of foot


pt with spinal TB and a flocculent, red, tender bulge on one flank, with one in the groin. which muscle is affected?

psoas muscle- works to flex thigh at the hip and some external rotation at hip


central scotoma

another name for macula
-optic neuritis
-macular degeneration


which nerve supplies the 1st and 2nd lumbricles

median nerve


supply for distal lesser curvature and proximal lesser curvature

-right gastric art
-left gastric art


compression of cervical vertebral artery vs cervical spinal nerve.

art-decreased blood flow to brain stem with consequent cranial nerve and cerebellar abnormalities
spinal nerve- pain, burning, tingling sensation and weakness or numbness in the shoulder, arm, or hands


where does vertebral art enter?



in upper cervical spine flexion/extension occurs and rotation occurs

occipital-C2 joint


which organ has a rich anastomotic vascular connection and can resist infarction when occlusion occurs in one of the arteries?

stomach. occlusion in gastroduodenal art does not cause infarction


what are branches of superior laryngeal nerve?
which nerve follows superior laryngeal artery? what does it innervate?
what branch innervates cricothyroid muscle

-internal and external
-laryngeal mucosa above the vocal folds


laryngeal mucosa innervation vs pharyngeal mucosa innervation

-laryn-superior and reccurrent laryngeal nerves
-pharyn-(CN 9) glossopharyngeal nerve


Erb's palsy vs Klumpke's paralysis (trunks damaged)

Erb's- upper


shoulder dsytocia-def, trunk effected, presentation

-infant's anterior shoulder is stuck behind mother's pubic symphysis
-damages lower trunk
-paralysis of intrinsic hand muscles and clawing of entire hand, numbness along medial aspect of hand
note!!!! b/c T1 is source of sympa innervation to face- can also present with ipsilateral Horner's syndrome


humerus fractures/nerve involved:
anatomical neck
surgical neck
lateral epicondyle
medial epicondyle
mid shaft

anatomical- usually doesn't occur, lies within joint capsule and no major nerves are affected
surgical-axillary nerve
lateral- radial nerve
medial- ulnar nerve
mid shaft- radial


describe location of femur insertion of
psoas major
gluteus maximus
gluteus medius, minimus, and piriformis

-lesser trochanter
-gluteal tuberosity
-greater trochanter


sudden strain to which muscle can produce a reflex contraction severe enough to avulse the what portion of the femur? pt pop?

psoas, lesser trochanter (see in athletes with large strong muscles)


action and nerve innervation
-tibialis anterior
-flexor hallucis longus
-peroneus brevis
-peroneus longus
-tibialis posterior

-dorsiflex of foot/deep peroneal branch
-plantar flexion of foot/tibial nerve
-eversion of foot while limiting inversion/superficail peroneal nerve
-plantar flexion/superficial peroneal nerve
-inverter and plantar flexor/tibial nerve


portosystemic shunt- def, pt pop

anastomosis of splenic vein (drains into portal vein) to left renal vein (drains into IVC)
shunt in pts with portal HTN to alleviate pressure


varicosities in inferior rectal vein produce what type of hemorrhoids? superior rectal vein?



Trendelenubrg sign-def, and muscles paralyzed

pat stands on one leg and hip on lifted leg drops
paralysis of hip abductors (gluteus medius and gluteus minimus)


name three flexors of arm at elbow

biceps brachii, brachialis, and branchioradialis


drainage pathway of the cervix

cervical vein, uterine vien, internal iliac vein