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STEP I 2014 > Reproductive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (54):

patter of hormones during gestation
-17-OH protgesterone/hCG

-rises during 1st tri and then falls (17-OH declines after destruction of corpus lutem, and hCG declines after placenta no longer needs corpus lutem)
-increase steadily throughout pregancy (P-maintain uterine lining and hPL increases with fetal mass)
-increases steadily starting around wk 28-initiates labor and fetal lung maturation


pts risk of breast cancer is increased with sclerosing adenosis with ductal hyperplasisa and not apocrine metaplasia because

apocrine metaplasia is benign, common, non-proliferative change and associated with increased breast cancer risk, Sclerosisng adenosis is a type of proliferative fibrocystic dz, if hyperplastic is can lead to invasive breast cancer.


pt taking drug that increases gonadotropins, decreases estradiol and endometrial proliferation blocks aromatase and not estrogen receptors because

blocking estrogen receptors would decrease endometrial proliferation. however the lack of negative feedback of estrogen on hypo would lead to increased levels of gonadotropins and estradiol. blocking aromatase would result in decreased estradiol despite increased levels of gonadotropins


what cells express LH receptors during early follicular phase? and which express LH receptors during late follicular development?

theca cell and granulosa cell



side chain cleavage enzyme. first step in ovarian steriodogenesis, converts cholesterol to pregnenolone.


drug used to treat herpes blocks viral DNA polymerase and not viral release from cell because

viral release from cell are the action so of neuraminidase inhibitors (-ivir=influenza), whereas drugs that inhibit viral DNA polymerase (-ovir i.e. Acyclovir) are used to treat herpes


describe glands, stroma, and mitotic figures in the different stages of endometrium development

-early proliferative 4-7 days-glands-straight and short, compact stroma, little mitotic activity
-mid proliferative phase 6-10 days-glands are longer, little stromal edema, numerous mitotic figures
-later proliferative 11-14, wavy glands, subnuclear vacuoles, prominent mitotic activity,
-secretory phase- stromal edema


asynchronous secretory endometrium

secretory epithelium has mismatch of staging between stroma and glands.


proliferative endometrium wit stromal breakdown

cause of bleeding in anovulation


bone metastases type:
breast, prostate, colon, kidney, lung, thyroid,

-both blastic and lytic
-doesn't metastasize to bone
-the rest produce lytic lesions


a young girl with virilization, HTN, hypoK, hyper 17-OH progetersone, and hypoALD has a defect in 11-beta-hydroxylase and not 17-alpha hydroxylase because

all CAH mutations lower CTH and would cause low blood pressure. the only reason for HTN is b/c of elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone (11-DOC) seen in 11-beta-hydroxylase. 17-alpha mutation would cause lack of secondary chacteristics in females and pseudo-hermaphroditism in males


PLAP and CD17 are markers for

seminoma cell membrane


drug with PE2 and oxytocic activity used to induce cervical softening during labor is dinoprostone not misoprostol because

misoprostol has PE1 not PE2. both can be used to ripen cervix


mechanism of cephalasporins

like penicillins, inhibit cell wall synthasis by blocking transpeptidaton enzymes. not as susceptible to beta lactams (aka penicillinases.)


young female athlete with irregular menstruation needs a progestin challenge and not clomiphene because

progestin challenge will confirm anovulation. anovulation can be treated with C (blocks estrogen mediated negative feedback on hypothlamus)


a pt with 46 chromosomes, a barr body, and ambiguous genitalia has excess production of androgens and not mutation of androgen receptor gene becuase

this pt is a female (a Barr body is only found in females). thus the ambiguous genitalia is due to over production of androgens. AID (androgen insensitivity syndrome) results in male (46XY) with external female features.


ground glass nuclei, cowdry type A bodies, and multinucleated giant cells dz and treatment



ampB +fluconazole treats

cryptococcus neoformans



congenitital displacement of urethral opening onto ventral surface (underside) of penis. can lead to UTIs or infertility



foreskin cannot be retracted over shaft of penis


preeclampia symptoms before 20wks gestation is most likely, after 6 months

hydatidiform mole
twin gestation or anencephaly(causes polyhydramnios)


16 year boy with painless lump in left breast and no fluid discharge, most likely has gynecomastia and not intraductal papilloma because

gynecomastia is common in youth and can occur in one or both breast. intraductal papilloma is rare in men and would present with blood nipple discharge


major of testosterone is bound to

sex-steriod binding globulin and vry little is bound to albumin


Cal-Exner bodies

granulosa cell tumors, uniform cuboidal cells resembling structures reminiscent of ovarian follicle


bicornate uterus

abnormal Y shaped uterine cavity- can cause spontaneous abortions in 2nd trimester


testicular arteries originate from. penis is supplied by

aorta, internal pudenal artery (from internal iliac artery)


location of hernias

all are lateral to lateral wall of rectus muscle
direct-within inguinal triangle, medial to i. epigastric art and vein, superior to inguinal canal.
indirect-lateral to epigastrics, through both deep and superficial inguinal rings (surrounded by all 3 layers of fascia)
femoral-through superficial inguinal ring, posterior to inguinal ligament


initial event of preeclampsia

placental ischemia-trigger release of thromboplastic substances, increases renin synthesis and reduces prostaglandin E levels.


epithelial hyperplasia and not ca2+ deposits is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer because

calcium deposits are seen in malignant and benign lesions and used mostly for diagnostic purposes. where as proliferative changes such as hyperplasia can lead to carcinoma


activin vs inulin

activate FSH vs inhibit FSH, produced in testes.


pt with mental retardation, X chromosomal breakage, and macro-orchidism may also have cardiac abnormalties and not renal because

pt has fragile X syndrome- Xtra large testis, ears, and jaw. also associated with mitral valve prolapse and autism. x linked defect affects methylation of FMR1 gene.


bleeding in placenta previa vs placenta abrupton

previa is painless and abruption is painful bleeding


hematosalpinx def and causes

bleeding into fallppian tubes-ectopic preg or transverse vaginal septum (obstruction of blood flow)


test results for Downs
Edwards and Patau syndromes

downs-increased nuchal transluency, decreased Papp-a and increased free beta-hCG
edwards- low PAPP and low beta-hCG
patau-low free beta-hcg, low papp-a, increased nuchal translucency


most important factor for pathogenesis in N gonorrhae is pili and not IgA protease because

although N. gonorrhae produces IgA protease to allow for mucosal colonization pili are what allow it to adhere to membrane, inhibit phagocytosis, and undergo antigenic variation


violin string adhesions of peritoneum to liver

fitz-hugh-curtis syndrome-infection of gillson's capsule (liver capsule) due to severe PID


processus vaginalis becomes

tunica vaginalis, partial closure results in hydrocele in children


increased number of columnar cells with preservation of BM
moderately differentiated cells with striated pattern

endometrial hyperplasia


hyperplasia to invasive adenocarcinoma

simple hyperplasia-dilated and irregular glands rare risk
complex hyperplasia w/o atypia- irregular glands and mitotic figures 5% risk
complex hyperplasia with atypia- glands, mitotic cells, and nuclear atypia. 25% risk


male pt with ambigous genetial, lipid laden adrenals, and decreased levels of all steroids (C21, C17, and C18), with no response to ACTH or hCG has Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) defiecncy and not 21-alpha hydroxylase def. because

21-alpha hydroxylase wouldn't lead to a decrease in all steroid production in fact it would increase androgen production. StAR is needed to transport cholesterol from outer to inner mintochondral, adrenal, and gonadal membranes. manifest at young age-congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia


man with thickened, whitish plaque with slightly ulcerated, crusted surface. biposy shows dysplatic epithelial cells, mitoses, disorder epithelium and intact BM has SCC in situ and not condyloma acuminatum because

lesion is Bowen Disease- vs condyloma which is usually a papillary lesion.
other types of SCC in situs lesions are BBQ
bowen, bowenoid(mutiple reddish brown pauplar lesions), and queyrat (shnny red papules)


white skin plaques on or near genitals with inflammatory infiltrate at dermal-epidermal junction and thinned epidermis

lichen sclerosis


reduced inhibin levels in young woman

premature menopause


whorled pattern with well demarcated borders

leiomyoma (fibroid)


pregancy mother presenting with symptoms of DM has increased hGH and not decreased hGH because

human growth hormone is released by placenta and acts like growth hormone, stimulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) to increase glucose and amino acids for baby, also hGH has anti-insulin effects and can cause DM


cell cycle phase before ovulation

diplotene stage of prophase 1 of 1st meiotic division


posterior fornix is in contact with

retrouterine space-pouch of Douglas


middle layer of urogentital diaphragm, containing sphincter urethrae muscle
below and lateral to pelvic diaphrage
between bladder and rectum in males
spce in female pelvis between bladder and uterus

deep perineal pouch, ischioanal space,rectovesical space, vesicoutrine space


multi giant nulceated cells originate from, rxn in breast is

histocytes, fat necrosis


RB suppression is associated with

CIN, retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma, colon, and lun


structure drainage:
-superficial inguinal nodes
-deep inguinal nodes and part of uterus
-bladder, internal genital glands, parts of uterus and cervix
-buttocks, loever limbs, anterior abdomin wall, perineum

-deep inguinal nodes
-external iliac nodes
-internal iliac nodss
-superficial ingunial nodes


palpate the what in order to perform a pudendal nerve block

ischial spine-connects greater and lesser sciatic foramens


male pt with normal internal genital and femized external genetials has 5alpha reductase deficency and not complete androgen resistance because

complete androgen resistance results in no internal genitals. 5alphaR is needed to convert T to DHT which is needed for 2ndary virilization


quetion 33.34