Anatomy and Physiology Prep Quiz Flashcards Preview

Paramedic Online Quizes > Anatomy and Physiology Prep Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Prep Quiz Deck (50):
1

Which of the following directional terms describes the front surface of the body?

A. Superior

B. Ventral

C. Inferior

D. Dorsal

B. Ventral

2

The left main coronary artery rapidly divides into the:

A. left posterior descending and acute marginal arteries.

B. circumflex and right anterior descending arteries.

C. left anterior descending and circumflex arteries.

D. posterior descending and left ventricular arteries.

C. left anterior descending and circumflex arteries.

3

A pH of 7.30 indicates:

A. acidosis.

B. a neutral pH.

C. alkalosis.

D. a basic pH.

A. acidosis.

4

A fracture of the orbital bone is commonly referred to as a:

A. midface fracture.

B. LeFort fracture.

C. basilar fracture.

D. blowout fracture.

D. blowout fracture.

5

The term perfusion is BEST defined as:

A. effective exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs.

B. the production of waste products from metabolism.

C. adequate circulation of blood to the body's cells.

D. sufficient removal of waste products from the body.

C. adequate circulation of blood to the body's cells.

6

During an acidotic state, the kidneys attempt to maintain a normal pH by:

A. retaining bicarbonate.

B. secreting hydrogen ions.

C. retaining hydrogen ions.

D. excreting bicarbonate.

A. retaining bicarbonate.

7

During your assessment of a patient, you note that he is bradycardic, hypotensive, and salivating. These clinical findings suggest:

A. parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.

B. sympathetic nervous system stimulation.

C. sympathetic nervous system depression.

D. parasympathetic nervous system depression

A. parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.

8

Afterload is defined as the:

A. amount of blood pumped from the heart per contraction.

B. volume of blood pumped ejected from the heart per minute.

C. degree of pressure against which the left ventricle pumps.

D. volume of blood returned to the left and right atrium.

C. degree of pressure against which the left ventricle pumps.

9

The layer of tissue that lines the inside of the chest cavity is called the:

A. pulmonary pleura.

B. visceral pleura.

C. parietal pleura.

D. thoracic pleura.

C. parietal pleura.

10

What physiologic response occurs when a person loses blood?

A. The sympathetic nervous system decreases SA node discharge.

B. The heart rate increases and cardiac afterload decreases.

C. Vessels constrict and myocardial contractility increases.

D. Blood vessels dilate in order to increase arterial blood pressure.

C. Vessels constrict and myocardial contractility increases.

11

Normal inhalation is the result of:

A. air passively entering the lungs.

B. diaphragmatic relaxation.

C. positive pressure in the thoracic cavity.

D. negative pressure in the thoracic cavity.

D. negative pressure in the thoracic cavity.

12

Which of the following lists, in the correct order, the return of blood from the systemic circulation to the heart?

A. Capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava

B. Arterioles, capillaries, arteries, aorta

C. Capillaries, arterioles, arteries, aorta

D. Venules, capillaries, veins, vena cava

A. Capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava

13

Freshly oxygenated blood is returned to the left atrium through the:

A. inferior vena cava.

B. superior vena cava.

C. pulmonary arteries.

D. pulmonary veins.

D. pulmonary veins.

14

What is the cardiac output of a person with a stroke volume of 60 mL and a heart rate of 90 beats/min?

A. 5.4 L

B. 2.1 L

C. 5.0 L

D. 4.2 L

A. 5.4 L

15

What type of valves are the aortic and pulmonic valves?

A. Semilunar

B. Atrioventricular

C. Chordis

D. Papillary

A. Semilunar

16

The semilunar valves of the heart function by:

A. minimizing the forward flow of blood.

B. preventing backflow of blood into the atria.

C. attaching to the papillary muscles.

D. preventing backflow of blood into the ventricles.

D. preventing backflow of blood into the ventricles.

17

Excessive stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system will result in:

A. bradycardia.

B. diaphoresis.

C. hyperactivity.

D. hypertension.

A. bradycardia.

18

Beginning with the outermost layer, the three meningeal layers of the central nervous system are the:

A. pia mater, dura mater, and arachnoid.

B. dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.

C. arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater.

D. dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid.

B. dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.

19

A projection of the second cervical vertebra (C2) that fits into the vertebral foramen of the first cervical vertebra (C1) is called the:

A. foramen magnum.

B. odontoid process.

C. vertebra prominens.

D. spinous process.

B. odontoid process.

20

What is the function of a baroreceptor?

A. Sensing changes in arterial oxygen levels

B. Monitoring the pH of cerebrospinal fluid

C. Sensing the arterial level of carbon dioxide

D. Monitoring changes in arterial pressure

D. Monitoring changes in arterial pressure

21

The majority of the body's total body water is contained within the:

A. intracellular space.

B. extracellular space.

C. intravascular fluid.

D. interstitial fluid.

A. intracellular space.

22

Efferent nerves of the peripheral nervous system are responsible for:

A. pH decreases and respirations decrease

B. pH decreases and respirations increase

C. pH increases and respirations increase

D. pH increases and respirations decrease

B. pH decreases and respirations increase

23

Blood enters the right atrium of the heart from the:

A. vena cava and aorta.

B. aorta and coronary sinus.

C. vena cavae and coronary sinus.

D. pulmonary vein and aorta.

C. vena cavae and coronary sinus.

24

What happens when the PaCO2 of the arterial blood increases?

A. pH decreases and respirations decrease

B. pH decreases and respirations increase

C. pH increases and respirations increase

D. pH increases and respirations decrease

B. pH decreases and respirations increase

25

The thick fibrous membrane that surrounds the heart is called the:

A. endocardium.

B. epicardium.

C. myocardium.

D. pericardium.

D. pericardium.

26

A patient with a left-hemispheric stroke would be expected to have:

A. ipsilateral extremity weakness.

B. ipsilateral facial drooping.

C. contralateral facial drooping.

D. contralateral pupillary changes

B. ipsilateral facial drooping.

27

In the bloodstream, _____________ reacts with the plasma protein angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I.

A. sodium

B. renin

C. testosterone

D. aldosterone

B. renin

28

Increased myocardial contractility secondary to stretching of the myocardial walls is called the:

A. Beck-Cushing's reflex.

B. Frank-Beck mechanism.

C. Ernest-Henry effect.

D. Frank-Starling effect.

D. Frank-Starling effect.

29

The diencephalon, a region of the brain, contains which of the following structures?

A. Medulla and thalamus

B. Cerebellum and pons

C. Pons and medulla

D. Thalamus and hypothalamus

D. Thalamus and hypothalamus

30

What is the cribriform plate?

A. Opening through which the brainstem passes from the cerebrum

B. Horizontal bone through which the olfactory nerve filaments pass

C. Superior surface of the cranial vault that protects the cerebrum

D. Saddle-shaped depression in the middle of the sphenoid bone

B. Horizontal bone through which the olfactory nerve filaments pass

31

The subclavian artery gives rise to the:

A. femoral arteries.

B. vertebral arteries.

C. carotid arteries.

D. popliteal arteries.

B. vertebral arteries.

32

The limbic system, a portion of the cerebrum and diencephalon, contains structures that:

A. control heart rate and blood pressure.

B. regulate a person's level of consciousness.

C. regulate sleeping and breathing.

D. influence emotions and mood.

D. influence emotions and mood.

33

What is the function of the lymphatic system?

A. Production of antibodies that destroy bacteria

B. Secretion of hormones to regulate other body functions

C. Filtration of debris and bacteria from the blood

D. Prevention of viruses from entering the body

C. Filtration of debris and bacteria from the blood

34

Closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves occur during:

A. ventricular relaxation.

B. the diastolic phase.

C. atrial contraction.

D. ventricular contraction.

D. ventricular contraction.

35

The first artery to branch from the aortic arch is the:

A. internal carotid artery.

B. external carotid artery.

C. common iliac artery.

D. brachiocephalic artery.

D. brachiocephalic artery.

36

Which of the following organs/structures lie(s) in the retroperitoneal space of the abdomen?

A. Superior vena cava

B. Spleen

C. Kidneys

D. Liver

C. Kidneys

37

Cardiac output is equal to:

A. systole minus diastole.

B. blood pressure multiplied by heart rate.

C. stroke volume multiplied by heart rate.

D. heart rate minus systolic blood pressure.

C. stroke volume multiplied by heart rate.

38

Stimulation of alpha receptors of the sympathetic nervous system results in:

A. bronchodilation.

B. tachycardia.

C. peripheral vasodilation.

D. peripheral vasoconstriction.

D. peripheral vasoconstriction.

39

The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata collectively form the:

A. brainstem.

B. cerebral cortex.

C. cerebellum.

D. diencephalon.

A. brainstem.

40

Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar capillary membrane through a process called:

A. perfusion.

B. osmosis.

C. diffusion.

D. metabolism.

C. diffusion.

41

The movement of a solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is called:

A. endocytosis.

B. diffusion.

C. exocytosis.

D. osmosis.

B. diffusion.

42

What physiologic reaction occurs when a person's blood sugar level falls?

A. Glucagon production is increased.

B. The pancreas secretes more insulin.

C. The pancreatic beta cells become hyperactive.

D. More glycogen is stored in the liver.

A. Glucagon production is increased.

43

When oxygen levels are low or absent, the cells revert to a process of:

A. anaerobic metabolism.

B. anaerobic anabolism.

C. aerobic metabolism.

D. aerobic catabolism.

A. anaerobic metabolism.

44

Glycogenolysis is the physiologic process in which:

A. glycogen is converted to glucose.

B. the kidneys produce additional glucose.

C. glucose is converted to glycogen.

D. the pancreas secretes glycogen

A. glycogen is converted to glucose.

45

The most inferior portion of the heart is called the:

A. volar.

B. base.

C. apex.

D. dorsum.

C. apex.

46

Relative to the wrist, the elbow is:

A. distal.

B. proximal.

C. posterior.

D. anterior.

B. proximal.

47

In the pregnant patient, the secretion of oxytocin causes:

A. uterine smooth muscle contraction.

B. thickening of the uterine wall for implantation.

C. decreased milk production in the breasts.

D. uterine smooth muscle relaxation

A. uterine smooth muscle contraction.

48

A newborn's total body water content is approximately:

A. 50% of total body weight.

B. 80% of total body weight.

C. 40% of total body weight.

D. 60% of total body weight

B. 80% of total body weight.

49

The heart's primary pacemaker, which is located in the right atrium, is the:

A. AV junction.

B. SA node.

C. bundle of His.

D. AV node.

B. SA node.

50

The pulmonary circulation is responsible for:

A. perfusing the vital organs of the body.

B. filtering the blood of toxic chemicals.

C. sending deoxygenated blood to the atria.

D. ensuring that blood gets reoxygenated.

D. ensuring that blood gets reoxygenated.