Quiz 4 - Principles of Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 4 - Principles of Pharmacology Deck (25):
1

A paramedic gives a woman with chronic pain an injection of sterile saline and tells her that it is a narcotic analgesic. The paramedic's action

A. demonstrates compassion and empathy.

B. could result in criminal prosecution.

C. is acceptable under the circumstances.

D. will likely be of therapeutic benefit

B. could result in criminal prosecution.

2

A medication that initiates or alters a cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites and prompting a cell response is said to be:

A. an agonist.

B. a competitive binder.

C. an antagonist.

D. synergistic.

A. an agonist.

3

Which adrenergic receptor, when stimulated, inhibits norepinephrine release?

A. Beta-2

B. Alpha-2

C. Beta-1

D. Alpha-1

B. Alpha-2

4

When is aspirin indicated for the treatment of a stroke?

A. Only if the patient is prescribed antiplatelet medications

B. Within the first 15 minutes after the onset of symptoms

C. Only after an intracranial hemorrhage has been ruled out

D. Immediately upon arrival at the emergency department

C. Only after an intracranial hemorrhage has been ruled out

5

Which of the following statements regarding the IM route of medication administration is correct?

A. Medications have a bioavailability of 75% to 100% following IM administration.

B. IM-administered medications are subject to first-pass metabolism in the liver.

C. Muscle perfusion has minimal effect on the absorption of IM-administered drugs.

D. Any medication given by the IV route can be given by the IM route

A. Medications have a bioavailability of 75% to 100% following IM administration.

6

Newer medications are designed to target only specific receptor sites on certain cells in an attempt to:

A. minimize the adverse effects.

B. eliminate all side effects.

C. treat more than one condition.

D. reduce their therapeutic effect.

A. minimize the adverse effects.

7

A/an __________________ agent is used to increase the pH of the serum or urine?

A. anticoagulant

B. alkalinizing

C. antihistamine

D. antacid

B. alkalinizing

8

Which of the following statements regarding pharmacology is correct?

A. The action of the human body in response to a particular medication is called pharmacology.

B. Despite the advanced science of pharmacology, adverse reactions are commonplace.

C. The selection and administration of most medications are based largely on anecdotal research.

D. Evidence-based guidelines, while helpful, are not the primary factor that drives medication administration.

B. Despite the advanced science of pharmacology, adverse reactions are commonplace.

9

A medication that has a narrow therapeutic index:

A. should not be given to patients over 50 years of age.

B. can be given, but not without close patient monitoring.

C. should not be given because its effects are too harmful.

D. is safe to give because the chance of toxicity is remote.

B. can be given, but not without close patient monitoring.

10

A drug is assigned a pregnancy category “A” if:

A. controlled studies in women fail to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester, there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters, and the possibility of fetal harm appears remote.

B. there is positive evidence of human fetal risk, but the benefits from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite the documented risk.

C. studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus and there are no controlled studies in women, or studies in women and animals are not available.

D. there is evidence of fetal risk based on human experience, and the risk of using
the drug in pregnant women clearly outweighs any possible benefit.

A. controlled studies in women fail to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester, there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters, and the possibility of fetal harm appears remote.

11

A medication undergoes first-pass metabolism in the:

A. spleen.

B. bone marrow.

C. liver.

D. stomach.

C. liver.

12

Glucagon is used in the treatment of beta-blocker overdose because it:

A. causes vasoconstriction and increases blood pressure.

B. activates beta-1 receptors and increases the heart rate.

C. blocks alpha-2 receptors and increases blood pressure.

D. produces positive inotropic and chronotropic effects.

D. produces positive inotropic and chronotropic effects.

13

A medication is used “off-label.” This means that it:

A. has been determined to be safe by a physician, and is used to treat a patient's illness before the medication has been approved by the FDA for any purpose.

B. is used for a purpose not approved by the FDA, at doses different from the recommended doses, or by a route of administration not approved by the FDA.

C. is administered in an extreme emergency situation, but only if initial clinical trials have determined that the medication will not cause harm to the patient.

D. is administered in clinical trials while the manufacturer conducts further research and before the FDA has approved the medication for use.

B. is used for a purpose not approved by the FDA, at doses different from the recommended doses, or by a route of administration not approved by the FDA.

14

A patient experiences profound sedation when an opioid, such as fentanyl, is given together with a benzodiazepine, such as midazolam. This is an example of:

A. synergism.

B. potentiation.

C. antagonism.

D. summation.

A. synergism.

15

The action of the body in response to a medication is called:

A. pharmacology.

B. pharmacodynamics.

C. pharmacokinetics.

D. biotransformation.

C. pharmacokinetics.

16

The term affinity, as it applies to pharmacology, is MOST accurately defined as the:

A. process of a medication binding to a receptor.

B. blocking of a receptor site by a particular medication.

C. ability of a medication to bind to a receptor.

D. strength of the bond between a medication and its receptor

C. ability of a medication to bind to a receptor.

17

When a medication alters the velocity of the conduction of electricity through the heart, it is said to have a(n) _____________ effect.

A. alpha agonistic

B. chronotropic

C. inotropic

D. dromotropic

D. dromotropic

18

The physiologic effects of nitroglycerin when given to patients with cardiac-related chest pain include:

A. decreased preload and coronary vasodilation.

B. increased myocardial oxygen consumption.

C. increased afterload and peripheral vasodilation.

D. coronary vasoconstriction and increased preload.

A. decreased preload and coronary vasodilation.

19

Unlike Schedule I drugs, Schedule II drugs have:

A. a higher abuse potential.

B. accepted medical uses.

C. no accepted medical application.

D. limited dependence potential.

B. accepted medical uses.

20

The peak of a medication's effect depends on _____________, whereas the duration of effect depends on ______________.

A. elimination, absorption

B. metabolism, distribution

C. distribution, absorption

D. absorption, metabolism

D. absorption, metabolism

21

The rectal route is preferred over the oral route for certain emergency medications because:

A. the vasculature of the rectal mucosa allows for slow drug absorption.

B. rectal medications are usually not subject to first-pass metabolism.

C. bioavailability of rectal medications does not exceed 50 percent.

D. rectal medications are altered significantly by first-pass metabolism.

B. rectal medications are usually not subject to first-pass metabolism.

22

Decreased efficacy or potency of a medication when taken repeatedly by a patient is called:

A. habituation.

B. immunity.

C. tolerance.

D. addiction.

C. tolerance.

23

Which of the following medications is derived from a plant source?

A. Digoxin

B. Lithium

C. Heparin

D. Insulin

A. Digoxin

24

The percentage of an unchanged medication that reaches the systemic circulation is referred to as:

A. peak plasma level.

B. pharmacodynamics.

C. drug interference.

D. bioavailability

D. bioavailability

25

Stimulation of alpha-1 receptors results in:

A. insulin secretion.

B. glucagon secretion.

C. arterial dilation.

D. vasoconstriction.

D. vasoconstriction.

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