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Flashcards in Lifespan Development Quiz Deck (40):
1

The _________ reflex happens when an infant is startled and opens his or her arms wide.

A. vagal

B. rooting

C. moro

D. palmar

C. moro

2

When assessing an older adult's pupils and ocular movements, you should recall that:

A. older adults experience decreased sensitivity to glare and widened peripheral vision.

B. the pupils are generally larger in older adults and are commonly asymmetric in size.

C. it is not uncommon for lens deterioration to cause the pupils to be sluggish to react.

D. visual impairment is four times more common than loss of hearing in older adults.

C. it is not uncommon for lens deterioration to cause the pupils to be sluggish to react.

3

At 2 months of age, an infant should be able to:

A. sit upright in a chair unassisted.

B. track objects with his or her eyes.

C. respond when his or her name is called.

D. differentiate family from strangers

B. track objects with his or her eyes.

4

In general, normal psychosocial factors that affect the life of a 35-year-old person include all of the following, EXCEPT:

A. family.

B. anxiety.

C. stress.

D. work.

B. anxiety.

5

By the age of 1 year, an infant's tidal volume ranges from:

A. 8 to 10 mL/kg.

B. 10 to 15 mL/kg.

C. 10 to 12 mL/kg.

D. 6 to 8 mL/kg.

B. 10 to 15 mL/kg.

6

Barotrauma secondary to bag-mask ventilations in an infant means that your ventilations:

A. were too forceful.

B. did not produce visible chest rise.

C. were too slow for the infant's age.

D. caused gastric distention.

A. were too forceful.

7

Relative to younger adults, older adults generally have a harder time breathing because the:

A. diaphragm ascends much higher into the thorax.

B. rib cage becomes flexible due to hypocalcemia.

C. phrenic nerves send fewer signals to the diaphragm.

D. natural elasticity of the lungs decreases.

D. natural elasticity of the lungs decreases.

8

Infants are referred to as belly breathers because:

A. their rib cages are more rigid than an adult's.

B. their ribs are not fully attached to the sternum.

C. they rely mostly on their diaphragm to breathe.

D. their intercostal muscles are not innervated.

C. they rely mostly on their diaphragm to breathe.

9

As the smooth muscles of the lower airway weaken with age:

A. beta-agonistic bronchodilators become an ineffective treatment for acute bronchospasm.

B. the alveoli in the lungs expand widely during deep inhalation, causing them to rupture.

C. strong inhalation can collapse the walls of the airway, resulting in inspiratory wheezing.

D. the person is predisposed to aspiration of mucus or other secretions during normal breathing.

C. strong inhalation can collapse the walls of the airway, resulting in inspiratory wheezing.

10

Patients between 41 and 60 years of age are LEAST susceptible to:

A. various types of cancer.

B. cardiovascular disease.

C. vision and hearing loss.

D. acute immunosuppression.

D. acute immunosuppression.

11

In conventional reasoning, school-age children:

A. make decisions guided by their consciences.

B. act out so that they can get what they want.

C. seek approval from their peers and society.

D. act almost purely to avoid punishment.

C. seek approval from their peers and society.

12

Which of the following vital signs is NOT consistent with that of a child between 1 and 3 years of age?

A. Systolic BP of 90 mm Hg

B. Respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min

C. Heart rate of 80 beats/min

D. Body temperature of 99.2°F

C. Heart rate of 80 beats/min

13

As a result of the increase in diastolic blood pressure associated with aging:

A. cardiac output progressively increases secondary to decreased afterload.

B. the left ventricle works harder, becomes thicker, and loses its elasticity.

C. the heart valves become stiff and impede blood flow through the heart.

D. the ventricles overfill with blood, resulting in chronic congestive heart failure.

B. the left ventricle works harder, becomes thicker, and loses its elasticity.

14

The pulse rate of a 16-year-old adolescent typically ranges between:

A. 80 and 110 beats/min.

B. 90 and 120 beats/min.

C. 60 and 80 beats/min.

D. 60 and 100 beats/min.

D. 60 and 100 beats/min.

15

In what age range can most children begin to use and understand full sentences?

A. 3 to 4 years

B. 4 to 5 years

C. 5 to 6 years

D. 2 to 3 years

A. 3 to 4 years

16

All of the following physical changes occur in school-age children, EXCEPT:

A. their vital signs become the same as adults'.

B. their weight, on average, increases 2 kg per year.

C. their height, on average, increases 2 ½″ per year.

D. they develop permanent teeth.

A. their vital signs become the same as adults'.

17

Upper respiratory tract infections are more common in toddlers than in infants because:

A. they put things in their mouths.

B. they are exposed to other children.

C. they do not produce antibodies.

D. of a loss of passive immunity.

D. of a loss of passive immunity.

18

Which of the following physical changes occurs in adults over 25 years of age?

A. Settling of the disks in the spine

B. An increase in muscle strength

C. A decrease in the body's fatty tissue

D. Hyperactivity of the reflexes

A. Settling of the disks in the spine

19

An infant's fontanelles are typically fused together by the age of:

A. 24 months.

B. 12 months.

C. 36 months.

D. 18 months.

D. 18 months.

20

By definition, infancy begins at:

A. 1 month of age.

B. 12 months of age.

C. birth.

D. 18 months of age.

A. 1 month of age.

21

Which of the following statements regarding growth spurts in adolescents is correct?

A. Blood volume typically remains unchanged during a growth spurt.

B. Girls typically experience a growth spurt later in life than boys do.

C. When this period of growth has finished, girls are generally taller than boys.

D. Boys generally experience this stage of growth later in life than girls do

D. Boys generally experience this stage of growth later in life than girls do

22

Vascular compensation for changes in blood pressure decreases with age due to:

A. reduced elasticity of the peripheral vessels secondary to decreases in elastin and collagen.

B. a 60% to 70% decrease in sympathetic nervous system stimulation and catecholamine release.

C. a marked reduction in renal function with increased sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules.

D. left ventricular hypertrophy and the subsequent decrease in cardiac output that it causes.

A. reduced elasticity of the peripheral vessels secondary to decreases in elastin and collagen.

23

Older adults are prone to subdural hematomas because:

A. older adults experience an increase in intracranial blood flow as well as a predisposition to falls.

B. age-related shrinkage of the brain stretches the bridging veins that return blood from the brain to the dura mater.

C. excessive alcohol use, which is very common in older adults, causes the brain to atrophy prematurely.

D. age-related hypertension weakens the cerebral veins, which predisposes them to damage from even minor trauma.

B. age-related shrinkage of the brain stretches the bridging veins that return blood from the brain to the dura mater.

24

In most infants, the primary method of communicating distress is:

A. tachypnea.

B. incontinence.

C. somnolence.

D. crying.

D. crying.

25

What is the systolic blood pressure range for a child between the ages of 1 month and 1 year?

A. 90 to 110 mm Hg

B. 70 to 95 mm Hg

C. 80 to 100 mm Hg

D. 50 to 70 mm Hg

B. 70 to 95 mm Hg

26

Anxious avoidant attachment is observed in infants who are repeatedly:

A. punished.

B. hugged.

C. carried.

D. rejected.

D. rejected.

27

Which of the following statements regarding nervous system function in the older adult is correct?

A. Synapses in the frontal lobe of the brain are the only ones that do not deteriorate.

B. Cerebral metabolism and oxygen consumption remain constant throughout life.

C. By the age of 80 years, the size of the brain has decreased by 30% to 40%.

D. Although a loss of neurons occurs, the remaining neurons increase in function.

B. Cerebral metabolism and oxygen consumption remain constant throughout life.

28

The decline in cardiac function associated with aging is largely related to:

A. rheumatic heart disease.

B. hypotension.

C. atherosclerosis.

D. bradycardia.

C. atherosclerosis.

29

For the first year of life, an infant has naturally acquired passive immunities because:

A. vaccinations are given within the first year of life.

B. he or she is producing antibodies exponentially.

C. he or she receives antibodies through breastfeeding.

D. he or she maintains some of the mother's immunities.

D. he or she maintains some of the mother's immunities.

30

Which of the following factors typically does NOT affect the vital signs of a 65-year-old patient?

A. Overall health

B. Past medical history

C. Living conditions

D. Medications taken

C. Living conditions

31

You would MOST likely see an increased end-tidal CO2 reading in an otherwise healthy older adult because:

A. many older adults experience idiopathic atrophy of the diaphragm and are unable to breathe in adequate tidal volumes.

B. as respiratory muscle mass increases with age, the older adult experiences increasing difficulty with inspiration and expiration.

C. residual volume increases with age, resulting in stagnant air remaining in the alveoli and hampering gas exchange.

D. the vital capacity in late adulthood amounts to only 20% of the vital capacity noted in young adulthood.

C. residual volume increases with age, resulting in stagnant air remaining in the alveoli and hampering gas exchange.

32

Which of the following statements regarding middle adults is correct?

A. Middle adults view crisis as a challenge to be overcome rather than a threat to be avoided.

B. Middle adult males are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than middle adult females.

C. Menopause in middle adult females causes an overall increase in bone density.

D. Middle adults focus less on achieving their life's goals because of “empty nest” syndrome.

A. Middle adults view crisis as a challenge to be overcome rather than a threat to be avoided.

33

Which of the following psychosocial changes is common during adolescence?

A. Fixation on public image and fear of embarrassment

B. Openness in speaking about personal issues

C. Code of ethics development based solely on parental values

D. A decreased risk for depression or suicidal behavior

A. Fixation on public image and fear of embarrassment

34

Which of the following statements regarding renal function in older adults is correct?

A. Aging kidneys respond less efficiently to hemodynamic stress.

B. A 20-year-old patient has already experienced a 10% loss of nephrons.

C. Renal filtration begins to deteriorate at the age of 70 years.

D. In older adults, renal changes are more structural than functional.

A. Aging kidneys respond less efficiently to hemodynamic stress.

35

Teething is commonly accompanied by:

A. a rash.

B. fever.

C. diarrhea.

D. ear infections.

B. fever.

36

In late adults, the size of the airway __________ and the surface area of the alveoli ___________.

A. decreases, decreases

B. increases, increases

C. increases, decreases

D. decreases, increases

C. increases, decreases

37

In contrast to infants, toddlers:

A. have a slower respiratory rate.

B. have a slightly higher pulse rate.

C. have a lower systolic blood pressure.

D. gain weight at a faster rate.

A. have a slower respiratory rate.

38

At birth, a pulse rate of up to ____ beats/min and a respiratory rate of up to ____ breaths/min are considered normal.

A. 180, 60

B. 140, 40

C. 160, 50

D. 200, 70

A. 180, 60

39

According to the terminal drop hypothesis:

A. late-stage adults retain high brain function until about 5 years before death.

B. most adults over 70 years of age are willing to give up their independence.

C. mental function is presumed to decline in the 5 years preceding death.

D. Alzheimer's disease commonly develops after the death of a loved one.

C. mental function is presumed to decline in the 5 years preceding death.

40

The circadian rhythm refers to a person's:

A. breathing pattern.

B. sleep pattern.

C. bowel habits.

D. feeding habits.

B. sleep pattern.