*Anatomy - CV system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in *Anatomy - CV system Deck (25):
1

Where does the systemic circulation travel?

From the left side of the heart to the capillary beds of organs and tissues and back to the right side of the heart

2

Where does the pulmonary circulation travel?

From the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart

3

In what part of the thoracic cavity is the heart located?
What is this?

Mediastinum
The area between the lungs

4

What are the divisions of the mediastinum?

Superior and inferior
Inferior divided into anterior, middle, posterior

5

In what part of the mediastinum is the pericardium located?

Middle mediastinum

6

What are the 2 layers of the pericardium?

Outer fibrous pericardium
Inner serous pericardium (divided into visceral serous pericardium and parietal serous pericardium)

7

What are the 2 purposes of the fibrous pericardium?

To prevent overfilling
Protects us from penetrating injuries

8

How does a cardiac tamponade develop?

if the pericardial cavity fills with blood (haemopericardium) the increased pressurebcan prevent cardiac contraction

9

What does the serous pericardium secrete?

Serous fluid (lubrication = frictionless surface for the heart to expand)

10

What are the 3 layers of the heart?
What is each made up of?

External = epicardium (visceral serous pericardium)
Middle = myocardium (muscle layer)
Internal = endocardium (internal lining - continuous with endothelium of blood vessels connecting with the heart)

11

What are the 3 surfaces of the heart?

anterior
Posterior (base of the heart - formed from both atria)
Inferior surface of heart (diaphragmatic surface)

12

What forms the right border of the heart?

Right atrium

13

What forms the left (lateral) border of the heart

Left ventricles

14

What branches off of the pulmonary trunk?

The pulmonary arteries (right pulmonary artery, left pulmonary artery)

15

Valve between right atrium and right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

16

Valve between left atrium and left ventricle?

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

17

Valve between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk?

Pulmonary valve

18

Valve between left ventricle and aorta?

Aortic valve

19

What is the crux of the heart?

The junction between all 4 chambers

20

What does the fibrous cardiac skeleton do?

Helps toehold valves open and acts as an electrical insulator

21

What does the fibrous skeleton consist of?

4 rings and a small part which runs down the septum

22

What ensures that there is only 1 point of electrical conduction between the atrial and ventricular myocardium?

The fibrous skeleton

23

What is fibrillation?

Uncoordinated contraction of myocytes resulting in inefficient pumping that can be fatal if affecting the ventricles

24

What are 2 external factors that affect the heart?

Nerves
Hormones

25

What type of nerves affect the heart?

Sensory (pain) nerves
Motor nerves (supply the nodes and myocytes)