Flashcards in *Anatomy - CV system Deck (25):
Where does the systemic circulation travel?
From the left side of the heart to the capillary beds of organs and tissues and back to the right side of the heart
Where does the pulmonary circulation travel?
From the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart
In what part of the thoracic cavity is the heart located?
What is this?
The area between the lungs
What are the divisions of the mediastinum?
Superior and inferior
Inferior divided into anterior, middle, posterior
In what part of the mediastinum is the pericardium located?
What are the 2 layers of the pericardium?
Outer fibrous pericardium
Inner serous pericardium (divided into visceral serous pericardium and parietal serous pericardium)
What are the 2 purposes of the fibrous pericardium?
To prevent overfilling
Protects us from penetrating injuries
How does a cardiac tamponade develop?
if the pericardial cavity fills with blood (haemopericardium) the increased pressurebcan prevent cardiac contraction
What does the serous pericardium secrete?
Serous fluid (lubrication = frictionless surface for the heart to expand)
What are the 3 layers of the heart?
What is each made up of?
External = epicardium (visceral serous pericardium)
Middle = myocardium (muscle layer)
Internal = endocardium (internal lining - continuous with endothelium of blood vessels connecting with the heart)
What are the 3 surfaces of the heart?
Posterior (base of the heart - formed from both atria)
Inferior surface of heart (diaphragmatic surface)
What forms the right border of the heart?
What forms the left (lateral) border of the heart
What branches off of the pulmonary trunk?
The pulmonary arteries (right pulmonary artery, left pulmonary artery)
Valve between right atrium and right ventricle?
Valve between left atrium and left ventricle?
Mitral (bicuspid) valve
Valve between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk?
Valve between left ventricle and aorta?
What is the crux of the heart?
The junction between all 4 chambers
What does the fibrous cardiac skeleton do?
Helps toehold valves open and acts as an electrical insulator
What does the fibrous skeleton consist of?
4 rings and a small part which runs down the septum
What ensures that there is only 1 point of electrical conduction between the atrial and ventricular myocardium?
The fibrous skeleton
What is fibrillation?
Uncoordinated contraction of myocytes resulting in inefficient pumping that can be fatal if affecting the ventricles
What are 2 external factors that affect the heart?