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Flashcards in *Public Health Deck (40):
1

What ar the 5 ways in which infection can be spread?

Inhalation
Ingestion
Inoculation (direct and indirect)
Mother to Infant
Intercourse
(some things can be spread by more than 1 I)

2

What is direct inoculation?

Skin or mucous membrane comes into contact with the skin or mucous membrane of an infected person

3

What is indirect inoculation?

Skin or mucous membrane comes into contact with a contaminated surface

4

What is the chain of infection?

Pathogenic microorganism - reservoir - means of escape - mode of transmission - means of entry - host susceptibility
*breaking the chain at any point interrupts transmission

5

Where is the reservoir of ebola?

Fruit bats in africa

6

What are the 2 categories of control of infection precautions and what do they mean?

Standard (all patients all the time)
Transmission based (added on for known suspected infection)

7

What are the 3 types of transmission based precautions?

Contact precautions
Droplet precautions
Airborne precautions

8

What are the 10 standard control of infection precautions?

Hand hygiene
Sharps management
Clinical waste
PPE
Patient placement
Body fluid spillages
Environmental cleanliness
Clean equipment
Laundry
Respiratory etiquette

9

What are WHOs 5 moments of hand hygiene?

Before patient contact
Before aseptic task
After body fluid exposure risk
After patient contact
After contact with patient surroundings

10

What enzyme do you swab for that gives a general indication of hygiene?

ATP

11

What transmission based precautions are taken for infection spread via either ingestion or inoculation?

Contact

12

What transmission based precaution is taken for infection spread via inhalation droplet?

Droplet precautions

13

What transmission based precaution is taken for infection spread via inhalation airborne?

Airborne

14

Types of contact precautions?
What infections for example are these used for?

Gloves
Apron
Single room or cohort bay

MRSA
C. diff
Norovirus

15

Type of droplet precautions?
Example of infection this is used for?

Single room
Ensuite toilet/ shower
Gloves
Apron
Mask (surgical big drops)
Eye protection
Vaccination where available

Influenza

16

Types of airborne precautions?
Example of infections it is used for?

Negative pressure room
Gown, gloves, apron, eye protection
FFP3 mask (filter mask)
Vaccination where available

Measles
Chickenpox

17

What is epidemiology?

Study of the frequency, distribution and determinants of disease in populations

18

Is there a vaccine for HIV?

No

19

What is the difference between morbidity and mortality?

Mortality refers to the number of people who have died in a population where as morbidity refers to the number of people who are diseased

20

Equation for mortality rate?

No of deaths / population at risk X 1000

21

What is the crude death rate?

Mortality rate for the whole population

22

What does the standardised mortality rate do?

Compares the expected rate with the observed rate

23

What is the difference between incidence and prevalence?

Incidence is the number of new cases diagnosed in a population where as prevalence refers to the number of people in a population who have the disease at a set time

24

Incidence rate equation?

Number of new cases of a disease occurring in a population during a specific period time / number of persons exposed to risk of developing the disease during that period of time (usually expressed per 1,000)

25

Prevalence rate equation?

Number of cases of a disease present in a population at a specific point in time / number of persons at risk of having the disease at a point in time (usually expressed per 1,000)

26

What are the 3 dimensions of wellbeing?

Emotional
Social
Psychological

27

What are the 2 manifestations of protein energy malnutrition?

Kwashiorkor (oedema) - lack of high-quality protein
Marasmus (low weight/ wasting) - caused by a diet low in both protein and calories

28

Manifestation of vitamin A deficiency? (2)

Blindness
Increased severity of diarrhoea and infection

29

Manifestation of iodine deficiency?

Poor cognitive development

30

Manifestation of iron deficiency? (3)

Anaemia, poor cognitive development, increased susceptibility to infection

31

Manifestation of zinc deficiency? (2)

Growth failure
Increased severity of diarrhoea

32

Manifestation of vitamin B1 deficiency? (2)

Peripheral nerves affected
Encephalopathy

33

Manifestation of vitamin B2 deficiency (3)

Anaemia
Sores around mouth
Red and cracked lips

34

Manifestation of vitamin B3 deficiency? (3)

Dermatitis
Diarrhoea
Dementia

35

Manifestation of folate deficiency?

Anaemia

36

Manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency? (2)

Anaemia
Neuropathy

37

Manifestation of vitamin C deficiency? (4)

Bleeding gums
Coiled hair
Bruising
Scurvy

38

Manifestation of vitamin D deficiency?

Rickets

39

What are the 10 cancers related to body fat?

Oesophagus
Pancreas
Ovary
Gallbladder
Colorectal
Breast
Endometrium
Kidney
Liver Prostate

40

What does the Healthy Start Scheme provide?

Vitamin supplements and vouchers to buy fruit and veg to pregnant women less than 18 and on benefits - continues until the child is 4