*Pathology (6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in *Pathology (6) Deck (48):
1

What are the 4 main points that pathologists want to find out from a cancer resection?

Is it out?
What is it?
How far has it gone?
How bad is it? (how malignant is it behaving)

2

What does the presence of a capsule around a neoplasia indicate?

It is slow growing - slow growing usually = benign (the body has tried to fence it off from surrounding tissue)

3

Are malignant tumours normally homogenous or heterogenous?

Heterogenous - different areas of the tumour look different

4

What is the N:C ratio?

Nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio
A ratio of the size of the nucleus compared to the cytoplasm

5

N:C ratio in cancer?

High

6

What type of cells do cells originate from?

stem cells (cells then receive various signals to mature into a specific cell type with a specific function - they differentiate)

7

Poorly differentiated cells?

Difficult to tell what the cell of origin is

8

What does hyperchromasia mean?

Increased pigment - increased staining capacity - usually highly active cells

9

What are the main groups of cells that cancer forms in? (4)

Epithelial
Mesenchymal (connective tissue)
Haematopoietic (cells that circulate blood)
Others - melanocytic, brain (glial)

10

What tissues do carcinomas affect

Epithelium

11

Benign tumour of glandular epithelium?

Adenoma

12

Cancerous tumour of glandular epithelium?

Adenocarcinoma

13

Benign tumour of squamous epithelium?

Papilloma

14

Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium?

Squamous cell carcinoma

15

Malignant tumour of bladder?

Transitional cell carcinoma - sometimes called urothelial cell carcinoma

16

What is mesenchymal tissue?

Connective tissues e.g. bone, cartilage, peripheral nerves, fat, fibrous tissue, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, etc.

17

What are mesenchymal malignancies called?

Sarcomas

18

Benign tumour of fat?

Lipoma

19

Malignant tumour of fat?

Liposarcoma (e.g. retroperitoneum, testicular - rare)

20

Benign tumour of bone?

Osteoma

21

Malignant tumour of bone?

Osteosarcoma

22

Benign tumour of cartilage?

Enchondroma

23

Malignant tumour of cartilage?

Chondrosarcoma

24

Benign tumour of skeletal muscle?

Rabdomyoma

25

Malignant tumour of skeletal muscle?

Rabdomyosarcoma

26

Benign tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomyoma

27

Benign tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomyosarcoma

28

Benign tumour of nerves? (2)

Neurofibroma, schwannoma

29

Malignant tumour of nerves?

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour

30

Benign tumour of blood vessels?

Haemangioma, etc.

31

Malignant tumour of blood vessels? (2)

Angiosarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma

32

What are CNS cancers?

Gliomas

33

What are melanocytes?

Melanin-producing cells

34

What is an ephelis?

Freckle

35

What is a navus?

Mole

36

What are cancers formed from melanocytes?

Melanomas

37

What does cancer stage describe?

way of describing the size of a cancer and how far it has grown.

38

What type of classification of cancer tells you how far it has spread?

Stage

39

What type of classification tells you how bad (how malignant) the cancer is?

Grade

40

What does tumour grade tell you about a cancer?

How bad the cancer is (how abnormal the cells are)

41

Relation between differentiator and grade?

Well differentiated = low grade and vice versa

42

What is weight loss caused by cancer called?

Cachexia (weight loss due to severe illness)

43

Why do patients with cancer get weight loss?

The tumour use energy to grow but also produce all sorts of molecules that result in increased metabolism throughout the body (mainly TNF)

44

What is often the cause of sudden death in patients with known cancer?

Invasion of a large vessel

45

What is paraneoplastic syndrome?

A syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells - often due to hormones and cytokines released by the tumour affecting the immune system e.g. high calcium, low sodium

46

What is osteoarthropathy?

Combination of clubbing arthritis, and periostitis in hands (paraneoplastic)

47

Example of symptoms of paraneoplastic syndrome?

Osteoarthropathy
Unusual neurological symptoms
Skin rash
Fever (abnormal production of pyrogens)

48

What symptoms can bone metastases have?

Pathological fracture
Calcium metabolism (high calcium = arrhythmia)
Kidney problems