Flashcards in *Pathology (6) Deck (48):
What are the 4 main points that pathologists want to find out from a cancer resection?
Is it out?
What is it?
How far has it gone?
How bad is it? (how malignant is it behaving)
What does the presence of a capsule around a neoplasia indicate?
It is slow growing - slow growing usually = benign (the body has tried to fence it off from surrounding tissue)
Are malignant tumours normally homogenous or heterogenous?
Heterogenous - different areas of the tumour look different
What is the N:C ratio?
Nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio
A ratio of the size of the nucleus compared to the cytoplasm
N:C ratio in cancer?
What type of cells do cells originate from?
stem cells (cells then receive various signals to mature into a specific cell type with a specific function - they differentiate)
Poorly differentiated cells?
Difficult to tell what the cell of origin is
What does hyperchromasia mean?
Increased pigment - increased staining capacity - usually highly active cells
What are the main groups of cells that cancer forms in? (4)
Mesenchymal (connective tissue)
Haematopoietic (cells that circulate blood)
Others - melanocytic, brain (glial)
What tissues do carcinomas affect
Benign tumour of glandular epithelium?
Cancerous tumour of glandular epithelium?
Benign tumour of squamous epithelium?
Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant tumour of bladder?
Transitional cell carcinoma - sometimes called urothelial cell carcinoma
What is mesenchymal tissue?
Connective tissues e.g. bone, cartilage, peripheral nerves, fat, fibrous tissue, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, etc.
What are mesenchymal malignancies called?
Benign tumour of fat?
Malignant tumour of fat?
Liposarcoma (e.g. retroperitoneum, testicular - rare)
Benign tumour of bone?
Malignant tumour of bone?
Benign tumour of cartilage?
Malignant tumour of cartilage?
Benign tumour of skeletal muscle?
Malignant tumour of skeletal muscle?
Benign tumour of smooth muscle?
Benign tumour of smooth muscle?
Benign tumour of nerves? (2)
Malignant tumour of nerves?
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour
Benign tumour of blood vessels?
Malignant tumour of blood vessels? (2)
Angiosarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma
What are CNS cancers?
What are melanocytes?
What is an ephelis?
What is a navus?
What are cancers formed from melanocytes?
What does cancer stage describe?
way of describing the size of a cancer and how far it has grown.
What type of classification of cancer tells you how far it has spread?
What type of classification tells you how bad (how malignant) the cancer is?
What does tumour grade tell you about a cancer?
How bad the cancer is (how abnormal the cells are)
Relation between differentiator and grade?
Well differentiated = low grade and vice versa
What is weight loss caused by cancer called?
Cachexia (weight loss due to severe illness)
Why do patients with cancer get weight loss?
The tumour use energy to grow but also produce all sorts of molecules that result in increased metabolism throughout the body (mainly TNF)
What is often the cause of sudden death in patients with known cancer?
Invasion of a large vessel
What is paraneoplastic syndrome?
A syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells - often due to hormones and cytokines released by the tumour affecting the immune system e.g. high calcium, low sodium
What is osteoarthropathy?
Combination of clubbing arthritis, and periostitis in hands (paraneoplastic)
Example of symptoms of paraneoplastic syndrome?
Unusual neurological symptoms
Fever (abnormal production of pyrogens)