*Pathology (3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in *Pathology (3) Deck (38):
1

Mechanism that allow cells to cope with stress? (3)

Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia

2

What happens when stress becomes too much for a cell?

Cell death occurs

3

What are the 2 options of cell death?

Necrosis
Apoptosis

4

Does necrosis require energy?

No

5

Is necrosis physiological and/or pathological?

Always pathological

6

What are the 3 main types of necrosis?

Coagulative necrosis
Liquefactive necrosis
Caseous necrosis (mixture of the above 2)

7

What is coagulative necrosis?
Usually caused by?
What are dead cells consumed by?
where is it often seen?

Type of necrosis where the cell outline is preserved for at least a couple of days usually caused by ischaemia or infarction
dead cells are consumed by various enzymatic processes and cells (microenvironment too toxic for proteolysis, etc.)
Often seen in cardiac muscle - MI

8

What is liquefactive necrosis?
Usually caused by?

Liquefactive necrosis (or colliquative necrosis) is a type of necrosis which results in a transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass (no cell structure contains)
Tissue is turned into puss
Often it is associated with focal bacterial or fungal infections.
Necrosis within the brain

9

What is another name for caseous necrosis?
What is it usually associated with?
What can it be considered as?

Cheesy necrosis - looks like cream cheese
TB
A combination between coagulative and liquefactive necrosis

10

What is the characteristic appearance of TB?

Granulomatous inflammation with central caseous necrosis

11

What should be done if someone mentions caseous necrosis?

Think TB!!
Ask for culture, PCR and look for result of Ziehl Neelson stain

12

What is apoptosis?

Programmed cell death in response to specific signals

13

Does apoptosis require energy?

Yes - it requires energy

14

What is necrosis?

the death of most or all of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or failure of the blood supply.

15

Is apoptosis physiological and/or pathological?

Physiological - we sometimes need cells to die off, it may be part of normal growth
Can also be pathological

16

Example of physiological apoptosis? (apoptosis required for health)

Fingers initially start off webbed and then apoptosis creates distinct digits

17

Example of apoptosis related to immune system?

Removal of self reactive lymphocytes
(another example of physiological apoptosis is hormone-dependant involution)

18

Examples of pathological apoptosis? (6) - sign of disease

In response to injury
Radiation (including UV light)
Chemotherapy
Viral infection - hepatitis
Cancers
Graft versus host disease

19

What are capsases?

Protease enzymes which play an essential role in apoptosis and inflammation

20

What are the 2 possible pathways for activating capsases?

Extrinsic
Intrinsic

21

What is the extrinsic pathway for activating capsases?

Death receptor (a TNF receptor/ Fas receptor) is activated when its ligand binds
When a number of these come together they form another receptor for a protein which also has a cytoplasmic "death domain" e.g. fas-associated death domain
This activates caspase

22

What is the purpose of Fas ligand?

Fas is a type of TNF
Some cells of the body express a Fas ligand and activated T lymphocytes always express the Fas receptor meaning if they join, capsase is activated = apoptosis

23

What type of conditions do patients with Fas mutations often get?

Autoimmune diseases

24

What is tumour necrosis factor?

A cytokine released by many leukocytes which is involved in many processes such as inflammation and can cause cell death

25

What is another name for the intrinsic pathway of activating capsases?
What is involved in this?

Mitochondrial pathway
Growth signals promote anti-apoptotic molecules in the mitochondrial membrane
When the growth signals are removed, they are replaced with apoptotic regulators (Bax or Bak)
These increase the permeability of the mitochondria which causes the release of proteins, e.g. cytochrome C, that stimulate capsases

26

What are capsases?

Any number of compounds consisting of haems bound to a protein

27

What is p53?

A tumour supressor protein which binds to DNA and stimulates genes involved in suppressing division halting the cell cycle
p53 binds to damaged DNA and if it can't be repaired it induces apoptosis

28

What type of conditions can occur if there is too little apoptosis?

Cancers
Autoimmune disease

29

What type of conditions can occur if there is too much apoptosis?

Neurodegenerative disorders

30

What is the name for thethe irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis?

Pyknosis

31

What morphological changes occur during apoptosis?

Pyknosis - Chromatin condensation
Cytoplasmic blebs (cytoplasm breaks up)
Macrophages come in to hoover everything up

32

What is oxidative stress?

essentially an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants

33

What causes cellular ageing?

Oxidative stress - free radical damage
Accumulation of metabolism by-products e.g. lipofuscin

34

What is the name given to finely granular yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. It is considered to be one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells and ganglion cells?

Lipofuscin

35

What is the name of the structure at the end of a chromosome?
What is the purpose of these?
What do they consist of?
What happens with every division?

Telomeres
Provides protection and stops chromosome ends from degradation and fusion
TTAGGG repeats
With every division the number of repeats get smaller

36

What are somatic cells?

Any cell other than reproductive cells

37

Why do stem cells not die?

They contain telomerase that keeps adding more TTAGGG after its lost (telomerase is not active in somatic cells)

38

What is one factor that case stem cells to become immortal?

They reactivate telomerase