Flashcards in Anatomy Of The Respiratory Tract Deck (51):
What is the border of the upper respiratory tract?
The lower border of the circoid cartilage
What is the passage of air through the upper respiratory tract?
Nasal cavity/ oral cavity, the pharynx and the layrnx
What are the functions of the upper respiratory tract?
Conducting air from the atmosphere to the lower respiratory tract, conditioning (warming, humidification and trapping of particles from inspired air) and protection of the airway during swallowing
What are the bony structures found in the nasal cavity?
2 nasal bones and a axilla, carilagnous pathc,
What are the structures found in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
3 bony projections known as the superior, middle and inferior cohae, and the spaces below them known as the superior middle and inferior meatus
What is the purpose of the cochae on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
Increase the turbulence of air and slow it down, as well as increasing the surface area where it is in contact with the respiratory mucosa.
What areas are the nasal cavity divided into?
The vestibule, the respiratory region and the olfactory region
What is the description of the respiratory mucus membrane?
Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epitehliu,m
What are the free paranasal sinuses known as?
Frontal, maxillary, and anterior ethomodial sinuses as well as the spenoid sinuses at the back
What is the function of the nasolacrimal duct and where does it drain?
Drains tears from the eye and opens into the inferior meatus
Where does the auditory or eustachian tube open into the nose?
The level of the inferior meatus
How does the nose increase the temperature of the air?
Rich vascular supply
Where do the cilia waft the mucus?
To the oropharnyx where it is swallowed.
What are some features of the phrynx?
Is a fibromuscular tube which extends from the base of the skull to C6 and allows the passage of air from the nasal cavity to the layrnx.
What are the three parts of the pharynx?
The nasopharynx (behind the nasal cavity), the oropharynx (behind the ora cavity, between the soft palate and the tip of the epiglottis, and the layrngopharync (between the tip of the epiglottis and the circoid cartilage)
What is the larnux?
A muscular tube made with supporting cartilages, the carliganous skeleton is made up of 3 unpaired cartilages (epiglottis, the throyid and the circoid carilage)
What is the glottis?
The vocal cords and the apputures between the cords
What is movement of vocal cords towards the midline called?
Adduction of the cords (Abduction of the cords is opening the appeture)
What causes the movement of the vocal cords?
Intrinsic movements of the layrnx
What happens during speech to the vocal cords?
They are partially abducted during speech- sound is produced due to the passage of air through the appeture
What happens during reccurrent larnygeal nerve injury?
Supplies all the intrinsic msucles of the larynx, so injury nerve courses paralysis of the vocal cord on the ipsodal side leading to the harsness of voice, and can be secondary to a problem such as lung cancer
How do the vocal cords help to prevent aspiration?
Adducted during swallowing, and therefore block the entrance to the trachea
How can the airway of a unconcious person on their back be obstructed?
The toungue falling backward on the oropharnx, and in sleep apnea the loss of tone in pharyngeal muscles causes them to become floppy and obstruct airways
What are the different types of ribs found in the body?
Ribs 1-7 attach independently to the sternum,(true ribs) and ribs 8-10 attach to the costal cartilage that is found superiorly- false ribs and ribs 11-12 have an anterior attahcement and end in he abdominal muscles
Describs and name the costovertebral joints?
2 synovial joints- the joint of the rib head- which articulates with the body of the corresponding vertebra and above, and the cototranverse point, where the tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse processes of the corresponding vertebra
What are the three types of intercostal muscle?
The external intercostal, the internal intercostal and the innermost intercostals
What direction do the fibres of the internal intercostal muscles run?
What does contraction of the external intercostal muscles do?
Elevates the ribs and increases the thoraic volume
What innervates the intercostal muscles?
The intercostal nerves (T1-T11)
What is the action of the internal intercostal muscles?
Interssous part reduces the thoraic volume and reduces the rib cage
When are the innermost intercostal muscles active?
Forced expiration (also help to depress the ribs)
What is the location and singificance of the neurovascular bundle?
Contains the intercostal vein, atery and nerve, lie between the internal and innermost intercostal muscles, adnd run along the lower border of a rib so the needle in a chest drain should be inserted just above the rib
Where do the anterior and posterior intercostal ateries arise from?
Antetrior arises from the medial throaic atery, and posterior arise from the aorta and the superior intercostal atery
Where do the intercostal veins drain?
The anterior intercostal vein drains to the internal throaci vein, into the subclavian whereas as the posterior intercostal veins drain the the azzyogus vein on the right and the senmizygous vein on the left into the SVC
What are the roots of the intercostal nerves and what do they supply?
Anterior rami of the thoraic spinal nerve T1-T12 and they supply the intercostal msuclece, parietal pleura and the overlying skin
What are some of the features of the diaphram?
Dome shaped muscle, divides the thoraic and abdominal vaity, and attaches to the lumbar vertebrae and the acrute ligaments and costal cartilage,s of ribs 7-12 and xiphodi process of the setermal- concavity means the thoracic side is much lower than the ribs
Which is the higher dome of the diaprham and why?
The right dome (at the level of the 5th rib) is higher than the lefr dome at the 5th intercostal space due to the presence of the liver
Where do the vena cava, the oesphagus and the arotic hiatus pass through the diaprham?
Vena cava passes through at T8 the oseophagus passes through at T10 and the aortic hiatus passes through at T12
What is the innervation of the diaphram?
The prhenic nerve, C3,C4 and C5
What are the three areas of the thoaric cavity?
The superior mediastinum, and the anterior mediastum, the middle mediastum, and the posterior mediastinum
What are the two types of pleura found in the lungs?
The visceral pleura, covering the lungs, and the parietal pleura covering the inside of the hemithorax
What is the importance of the pleural fluid?
Allows parietal and visercal parts to slide over one another, and allows movement of the lung against the chest wall with breathing.
What is the pleura supplied by?
The intercostal ateries and the internal thoracic ateries, and has somatic innervation including pan fibres from the intercostal and the phrenic nerves
Where does the trachea divide into the left and right brochi?
The sternal angle
What is the brochipulmonary segement?
Pyramid shaped area of the lung with the apex facing twoards the hilium and the base towards the lung surface
What are the brochial ateries?
Supply brochial tree from the carina to the respiratory brochiloes the visceral pleura and the connective tissue
What are the three surfaces found on each lung?
A costal surface, a diaprhamatic surface and a mediastinal surface
Where does the apex of the lung extend?
Above the level of the first rib so can be damaged in stab wounds to the neck
Describe some of the structural features of the left lung?
Two lobes- the upper and lower, and are separated by the oblique fissure,
What are the structures found in the right lung?
3 lobes, the upper, middle and lower oblique fissure seperatates the upper and middle from the lower, and the horzinontal fissure seperates the right upper and middle lobes