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Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (20):

What are some of the risk factors other than smoking for lung cancer?

Asbestos, genetic/ familal factors, occupation carcinogens


What do the N stages of lung cancer refer to?

The lymph nodes, where N0 is no visible enlargement in the lymph nodes, N1 is the lymph nodes in the hilar region and the central parts of the chest is N2


What do the T stages of a lung tumour refer to?

The size of the tumour, and T4 means that the tumour is invading the cell wall


What do the M stages of a lung tumour refer to?

The amount of metases, M1a is local intrathroaic spread, whereas M1b is where it has metasised to the liver, brain and the adrenal gland


Where are some of the common areas of metastic spread for lung tumours?

Brain, draining lymph nodes, pericardium, lung, pleural, liver and adrenal glands


What are the two different forms of ways to determine the staging of a tumour?

Imaging and tissue sampling


What are the different ways of imaging so that you can determine the staging?

A CT scan, PET scan, CXR, endobrochial Bx, wash, EBUS, EUS, brochocsopy


What are some of the different ways of tissue sampling to determine the cancer staging?

Brochoscopy, CT biopsy, throascopy, USS, or surgical ways of determining the tissue


What are some of the signs of the primary tumour?

NO SYMPTOMS cough, dysponea, wheezing, heamotpysis, lung infectiot, weight loss


What are some of the symptoms of the metases?

Bloated face, dysponea, horsent due to a left reccurent laryngeal nerve pasly, chest pain if the pariteal pleura becomes involved


What may be some of the metabolic symptoms of a lung cancer?

Thirst (hypercalcemia) seizures, constipation


What are some of the signs of lung cancer?

NO SIGNS, cachexia, pale conjuctiva, certicval, hrones sndrome, consilidation, liver enlargement, sin metases, muffled heart sounds, signs of a pleural effusion


What are some of the paraneoplastic syndromes of lung cancer?

Endocrine, hypercalcemia, cushings sydrome and inapproiate anitbdireutic hromone secretion, hem=amtoloical suhc as anaemia, thromoboyctosim, sketal and nneuolical enclpathy, and eaton lyme syndorme


What are the general principals of imaging in a lung cancer ?

All chest X-ray, most a staging chest Ct and a PET C, and in some people you would need a head CT, a MRT and a US


What are the different types of lung tumour?

Non small cell lun cancer (a sqaumous cell carinoma, a adenocarcinoma, a large cell carcinoma) and small cell carcinoma and some of the more rare types of tumour


Wht does a performance status of 1 mean?

Symptomatic but able to carry out normal activitey


What are some of the different molecular thearpies for lung cancer?

EGFR mutation, ALK mutation, KRAS mutation, PDI mutation,


What are the forms of radiothearpy that can be given in lung cancer?

Radical- with curvative intent, pallative for symptom contolr


What are the forms of chemo that might be given in lung cancer?

Combination chemothearpy, which is potneially curvative in small cell carcinoma in small cell there is a modest survival increas, neoajuvant chemo before the surger, and adjuvant is chemo after surgery


What are some of the principles of symptom control in lung cancer?

Active symptom contorl, patient supprot, nurtional stone, airway stents, and helping wihth anixety and radiothearpy to help control the size of the tumour