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Cology 2 Exam 1 > Anesthetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anesthetics Deck (28):
1

Amnesia is mediated through what loci?

Hippocampus

2

Immobility is mediated through what loci?

Thalamus

3

Unconsciousness is mediated through what loci?

RAS (reticular activating system)

4

What do we use to induce analgesia before maintaining it with gas?

Propofol, thiopental (both IV)

5

What drug is used as an anti-emetic before surgery?

Promethazine po

6

What drug is used to decrease secretions before surgery?

Antihistamines po

7

What oral drugs are used for analgesia/sedation before surgery?

Clonidine, dexmetetomidine

8

What IV anxiolytic/amnestic is used prior to surgery?

Midazolam

9

What IV analgesic is used during surgery?

Fentanyl

10

What muscle relaxant is used during surgery?

Atracurarium

11

What drugs are used for maintenance of anesthesia?

N2O and isoflurane

12

What indicates need for more fentanyl or gas during surgery?

Increases in HR or BP

13

What is used after surgery to reverse blockade?

Neostigmine and atropine

14

What are the inhalation anesthetics?

Ether
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Halothane

15

What are the IV anesthetics?

Barbiturates
Ketamine
Propofol

16

What are the molecular targets of general anesthetics? (6)

1. Enhance Gaba-A receptor sensitivity (enhance affinity for GABA, prolong channel opening time and increase frequency of opening)

2. Enhance glycine-gated Cl- channels (Increase receptor's affinity for glycine)

3. Inhibit neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors, inhibiting excitation (produce analgesia and amnesia; does not affect neuromuscular junction)

4. Inhibit NMDA receptors (Inhibit long-term potentiation, produce unconsciousness)

5. Activate two-pore domain K+ channels (Hyperpolarization causes inhibition of action potentials, produces unconsciousness)

6. Neurotransmitter release (inhibit NT release in hippocampus, contributes to amnesia)

17

What kind of therapeutic index do anesthetics have?

Very low

18

What CNS effects do anesthetics have? (5)

Increase cerebral blood flow
Stimulate CTZ (nausea and vomiting)
Decrease or eliminate ventilatory drive
Decrease ventilatory reflexes (ie response to high CO2)
Lower temperature setpoint --> Hypothermia (worse with cold iv fluids, exposed organs, vasodilation)

19

What CV effects to anesthetics have? (6)

Decrease sympathetic tone
Increase vasodilation
Myocardial depression
Blunt baroreceptors
Decreased blood pressure
Decreased cardiac output (Worse with volume depletion and worsened myocardial dysfunction)

20

Besides CNS and CV effects, what other 3 effects do anesthetics have?

Decrease renal blood flow and filtration
Muscle relaxation
Decrease esophageal sphincter tone

21

What is MAC?

Mean Alveolar Concentration: concentration (%) at 1 atm required to prevent reflex responses to skin incision of 1 cm in 50% of patients

22

What is MAC-WAKE?

concentration (%) at 1 atm where 50% of patients will respond to verbal commands

Lower MAC value -- more potent the agent
MAC over 100 means hyperbaric condition is needed

23

Which anesthetic has the highest MAC? Lowest MAC?

Lowest MAC: Halothane (0.75%)

Highest MAC: Nitrous oxide (105%)

24

What does a low partition coefficient mean?

Less in the blood, more in the brain

25

What determines induction rate?

B/GPC

26

What anesthetic has the highest Blood/Gas Partition Coefficient? Lowest?

Lowest: Desflurane (0.42)

Highest: Halothane (2.30)

Lowest = fastest into the brain (fastest induction)

27

Fat/blood ratio affects what?

Recovery time and residual effects

28

Which anesthetic has the fastest recovery time?

Nitric oxide