Flashcards in Animal Growth Deck (58):
Why study animal growth?
Prevent wasting conditions
Optimize health and well-being
Growth rate and efficiency important in ag.
increase in size or mass of structural tissues or organs- does not include excess adipose tissue (fat) deposition
increase in cell number
increase in cell size due to accretion of cell products
the process of acquiring characteristics distinct from a progenitor cell or tissue, such as occurs in progressive diversification of cells and tissues of the embryo
What types of animals have growth plates that don't stop growing?
What happens during the ovum stage?
Fertilized by sperm
As cells differentiate morphogenisis occurs
(cells are not increasing in size at this stage therefore it is not hypertrophic growth.
What happens during the Embryonic stage?
High rate of cell division, hyperplasia and simultaneous differentiation
While there begins to be some hypertrophy it is still a minor proportion of the growth
What is totipotent?
Totipotent stem cells are one of the most important stem cells types because they have the potential to develop into any cell found in the human body.
What is pluripotent?
Can't become everything, but can become a number.
Endoderm refers to
Mesoderm refers to
Ectoderm refers to
brain, nerves, skin, and hair
What are the three germ layers?
Endoderm, Mesoderm, and Ectoderm
What occurs during the Fetal stage?
Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy
Dramatic increases in both cell number and size
Represents 80-85% of prenatal time period
What occurs during the post-natal stage?
Most muscle growth (nearly all) is hypertrophic growth
Some tissues such as adipose show propensity for both hyperplasia and hypertrophy.
What does neonatal mean?
How many more muscle fibers grow after you're born?
There is a change in what as we develop?
relationship of growth of a part of an organism to growth of the whole organism
During allometry, what happens?
growth at different rates
programmed cell death
decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part
change in form and/or function of the animal or tissue, which results from changes in the rate of increase or decrease of individual components of the body or tissue.
When does Atrophy happen?
If you don't actively use the muscles.
What is the opposite of Atrophy?
An increase in strenuous exercise would happen during what?
What is Hypertrophy and Atrophy influenced by?
What increases the speed of the growth plates in females?
What recieves its share of nutrients first when referring to the runt of the litter?
Brain and central nervous system
T or F? Everything in the body grows at the same time, but at different rates.
The white in bones is what?
What is in the Epiphyseal Growth Plate?
When there is a lack of use within bones, what happens? (females)
break down of the bone
Hyperplasia exists in what stage of skeletal muscle development?
What is the name for the cells during cell division?
What is a myotube?
Immature muscle fiber
What is myogenesis?
muscle fibers form
What is adiopogenisis?
formation of adipose tissue
What is myostatin?
Muscle inhibitor (growth factor) that inhibits muscle development
What does naturally occuring myostatin mutations cause in animals?
What happens with double muscling?
More muscle fibers
Larger muscle fibers
Higher percentage white muscle fibers
Less body fat
High incidence of dystocia
Very little intramuscular fat
What is dystocia?
DNA accretion in post natal growth
nuclei incorporated into pre-existing muscle fibers by satellite cells
increase muscle fiber's capacity for gene expression and growth
Protein accumulation in post natal growth
accounts for majority of muscle fiber hypertrophy
accumulation of myofibrillar protein occurs when protein synthesis exceeds protein degradataion
What is a satellite cell?
What is an adipocyte?
a unilocular lipid
Lipids account for what percentage of tissue?
Triacglycerols (triglycerides) account for what percentage of lipids?
The diameter of an adipocyte is normally?
Are adipocyte cells organized in clusters?
What happens during the phases of fattening?
Hyperplasia is followed by hypertrophy
recruitment of new fat cells (hyperplasia) can occur
What is increased during fattening?
Adipose tissue and number of fat cells
Why is fat in the body accumulated?
It is accumulated because of hyperplasia, and because of the increasing size (hypertrophy).
Is growth hormone an FDA approved growth regulator?
What is differentiation?
acquiring different specialized characteristics
Embryonic growth accounts for what percentage of the prenatal period?