Quiz 2 Past Test Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Past Test Questions Deck (44):
1

On average, cows milk has...

4.9% lactose, 87.3% water, 3.4% protein, and less than 10% of the fat found in marine mammal milk.

2

Rigor mortis

refers to the stiffness of muscles after death
often associated with sarcomere shortening

3

Which of the following will increase fluid retention in a fresh or cooked meat product?

presence of more marbling
prevention of elevated antemortem body temperature

4

On average, skeletal muscle is composed of approximately...

75% water, 18.5% protein, & 1% carbohydrate

5

Protein denaturation

can be caused by heat and acid
refers to change in protein structure or shape
can expose hydrophobic regions of proteins

6

Livestock slaughtered under USDA inspection

are individually inspected to determine that they are healthy
must be rendered intensible to pain before shackling and bleeding (unless Kosher of Halal)
are eligible to be graded to estimate quality and yield

7

Myoglobin

is a globular protein with a non-protein heme complex that contains iron
has a higher affinity for oxygen than the protein than hemoglobin

8

T or F? The isoelectric point is in the pH at which proteins will have no net charge, and will therefore repel each other.

False

9

T or F? Heavy cream can be churned to produce butter, which is over 80% fat.

True

10

T or F? Idaho ranks among the top five states for total milk production, and cows in Idaho produce more milk per cow than in California and Wisconsin.

True

11

T or F? Standardization of milk involves separation of heavy cream from skim milk, then blending of these two products achieve the desired fat content.

False

12

Milk is defined as the lacteal secretion, practically free from ___________ obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows, which contains not less than 3.25% of milk fat and not less than _________% milk-solids-not-fat.

Colostrum
8.25

13

Beef quality grades are based on maturity and marbling, and the latter is a term used to describe ___________ fat (term used to describe the location of fat)

intramuscular

14

The most abundant protein in milk is ____________ and this is the major protein in cheese. Cheese is formed by coagulation of milk protein using acid and the enzyme ___________, to form curds. The proteins that do not coagulate during cheese formation are referred to as ___________ proteins.

casein
rennet
whey

15

_______________ (name of specific process) must kill coxiella burnetti, which is the most heat resistant ____________ in milk. A legal time-temperature minimum requirement for this process is _________degrees F for 15 seconds.

Pasteurization
Pathogen
161

16

During the conversion of muscle to meat, the _______ declines as a result of hydrogen ion accumulation during anaerobic __________ (specific metabolic process). If this occurs too rapidly, while the muscle temperature is relatively high, a condition known as _______________ (DFD or PSE, spell out) meat may occur.

pH
glycolysis
Pale, Soft, and Exudative

17

Bos Indicus cattle have elevated levels of the calpain protease inhibitor ____________. This decreases protein degradation and also decreases meat tenderness in this species.

calpastatin

18

____________ is a process that results in a reduction in the size of fat globules in milk. This helps prevent separation of the cream from the milk.

Homogenization

19

Milk fat is usually found in the form ___________. Heat treatment of milk results in destruction of __________, which is an enzyme responsible for the development of rancid flavor of milk (caused by cleavage of fatty acids from the structure in the first blank). If a fatty acid has no double bonds, it is referred to as a _____________ fatty acid.

triglycerides
lipase
(not sure)

20

The primary carbohydrate in milk is __________, which is a disaccharide composed of glucose and __________. In contrast, glucose in skeletal muscle and liver is stored as a polysaccharide called _____________.

lactose
galactose
glycogen

21

Three students discussed the Southern Great Plains Dairy Consortium internship, which is located in Clovis, ____________(state).

New Mexico

22

Specifically, what does HACCP stand for?

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

23

Which of the following are fermented products, to which beneficial bacteria are added?

yogurt, cottage cheese, summer sausage

24

The legal time temperature minimum requirements for pasteurization include...

145 degrees for 30 minutes or 161 degrees for 15 seconds

25

Fatty acid oxidation...

causes off odors and flavors
is a cause of rancidity

26

Flavor of meat is influenced by...

type of feed consumed by animal
fatty acid distribution
gender of pig

27

Which of the following will make a meat product more juicy when consumed?

presence of intramuscular fat
cooking to rare instead of well done

28

On average, skeletal muscle is composed of....

3% fat
1% carbohydrate

29

Protein denaturation..

can be caused by heat and acid
refers to a change in protein structure or shape

30

Livestock slaughtered under USDA inspection...

are individually inspected to determine that they are healthy
must be rendered insensible to pain before shackling or bleeding
must be provided access to water at all times
are provided access to feed if held for longer than 24 hours

31

T or F? The two most common types of cheese in the US are Mozzarella and Swiss.

False

32

T or F? On average, people in the US consume about 50% more meat than recommended by the Food Guide Pyramid.

False

33

T or F? Standardization of milk involves separation of heavy cream from skim milk, then blending two products to achieve the desired fat content.

True

34

T or F? The isoelectric point of the major meat proteins is at -pH 5.1 and meat will have the poorest fluid holding capacity at this pH.

True

35

The __________ is the layer of skin that contains connective tissue, blood vessels, lymph, nerves, and glands and hair follicles.

Dermis

36

Pasteurization must kill Coxiella burnetti, which is the most heat resistant ____________ in milk. A secondary function of pasteurization is to _______________.

Pathogen
kill spoilage organism

37

During conversion of muscle to meat, the _________ declines as a result of hydrogen ion accumulation during anaerobic glycolosis. If this occurs too rapidly, while the muscle temperature is relatively high, a condition known as ________ (DFD or PSE) meat may occur.

pH
PSE

38

In Bos Indicus cattle, elevated levels of the protease inhibitor ___________ decreases meat tenderness.

Calpastain

39

The protein that is the major pigment in meat is __________. This pigment is _________(color) when oxygenated and the heme iron is in the ferrous state. (Fe++).

Myglobin
Red

40

______________ is a process that results in a reduction in the size of fat globules in milk.

Homogenization

41

Heat treatment of milk results in destruction of _______________, which is an enzyme responsible for the development of rancid flavor in milk.

Lipase

42

Light cream is higher in ___________ percentage than half and half.

Milk fat

43

What will cause the fat of cattle to be yellow?

If they were fed on grass. The vitamin A from the grass would cause the fat to be yellow because it is a lipid soluble vitamin.

44

Provide one reason why an animal may have an elevated body temperature, and one way the animals body will attempt to dissipate heat.

An animal could have an elevated body temperature due to stress. The animals body will attempt to dissipate heat by causing a greater blood flow to the skin.