Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (53):
Essential organic compounds required in small amounts
dissolve in lipids; stored in liver and adipose tissue, many have hormonal type actions; plant based some pro-vitamin
absorbed in the small intestine; many act a enzymatic co-factors/co-enzymes after modification
What is the name for Vitamin A?
What is the name for D2?
What is the name for D3?
Cholecalciferol (active in the animal body)
What is the name for Vitamin E?
What is the name for Vitamin K?
Phylloquinone (blood clotting)
What are the functions of Vitamin A?
Where is Vitamin A found?
organ meats, liver, fatty fish, and dairy products
What are some Vitamin A deficiencies?
What are the functions of Vitamin D?
aid in calcium absorption
serum calcium regulation
Where is Vitamin D found?
sun cured plants
What are some Vitamin D deficiencies?
What are some functions of Vitamin E?
maintain integrity of cell membranes
maintenance of heart function
protects skin and scar tissue and inflammation
often associated with selenium
Where is Vitamin E found?
vegetable oil, seeds, soybeans, avocados, etc
What are some Vitamin E deficiencies?
selenium deficiency causes white muscle disease
What are some functions of Vitamin K?
coagulation of blood
contributes to bone and tooth development
Where is Vitamin K found?
What are some Vitamin K deficiencies?
Rare (found in infants) by excessive bleeding.
Water soluble vitamins are absorbed where?
What are the functions of Vitamin B Complex?
healthy skin and muscle tone
enhance immune and nervous system
promote cell metabolism and growth
blood cell formation/maturation
What is the function of Vitamin C?
formation of collagen to hold the cells together
improves ion absorption and resistance to infection
benefits of high doses to immune system are debatable
What are some deficiencies of Vitamin C?
Where are minerals found?
all food groups
How are minerals classified?
Macro and Micro
What are some types of Macro minerals?
Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, S, Cl
What are some types of Micro minerals?
Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Se, I, Mn, Co
Macro minerals are presented in the body in larger or smaller amounts compared to micro?
What are the functions of Calcium?
Where is calcium found?
dairy products, green vegetables
What are some Calcium deficiencies?
Rickets, osteoporosis, milk fever
What are the functions of Phosphorous?
Bone development, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, blood pH.
What are some Phosphorous deficiencies?
rickets, osteoporosis, pica, low fertility, poor milk production
What are some functions of Sodium?
acid-base and osmotic balance of body fluids
major cation of extracellular fluid
What are some functions of chloride?
acid-base osmotic regulation
HCl and chloride salts in intestine secretions
What are some functions of Sulfur?
involved in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis
necessary for the formation of collagen
What is the deficiency related to Sulfur?
What are some functions of Magnesium?
associated with Ca and P
involved in enzyme activities
What are some functions of Potassium?
Acid-base osmotic regulation
nerve and muscle function
co-factor in several reactions involving carbohydrate metabolism
Can overfeeding Potassium lead to metabolic disorders?
What are some functions of Iron?
oxygen transport via hemoglobin
Immune system function
cellular energy metabolism
What are some iron deficiencies?
What are some functions of copper?
What are some copper deficiencies?
Neuro degeneration in animals and humans
decrease wool/hair growth
What are some functions of Selenium?
protect cells from damage by free radicals
important antioxidant function
very narrow range between deficiency and toxicity
What are some examples of selenium deficiency?
cardiac muscle degeneration
white muscle disease
What are some functions of Iodine?
aids in production of thyroid hormones
necessary for healthy hair and teeth
What are some deficiencies in iodine?
common in areas where there is little iodine in the diet
What does cobalt do?
What does Chromium do?
What does Zinc do?
DNA and immune function