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AVS 109 > Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (53):
1

Vitamins

Essential organic compounds required in small amounts

2

Fat soluble

dissolve in lipids; stored in liver and adipose tissue, many have hormonal type actions; plant based some pro-vitamin

3

Water soluble

absorbed in the small intestine; many act a enzymatic co-factors/co-enzymes after modification

4

What is the name for Vitamin A?

Retinol (eyes)

5

What is the name for D2?

Ergocalciferol (plants)

6

What is the name for D3?

Cholecalciferol (active in the animal body)

7

What is the name for Vitamin E?

Tocopherol

8

What is the name for Vitamin K?

Phylloquinone (blood clotting)

9

What are the functions of Vitamin A?

Vision
Bone development
Reproduction

10

Where is Vitamin A found?

organ meats, liver, fatty fish, and dairy products
Beta-carotene

11

What are some Vitamin A deficiencies?

Blindness
Reproduction disorders

12

What are the functions of Vitamin D?

aid in calcium absorption
calcium storage
serum calcium regulation

13

Where is Vitamin D found?

sun cured plants
animal food

14

What are some Vitamin D deficiencies?

Rickets
osteoporosis

15

What are some functions of Vitamin E?

Antioxidant
maintain integrity of cell membranes
maintenance of heart function
protects skin and scar tissue and inflammation
often associated with selenium

16

Where is Vitamin E found?

vegetable oil, seeds, soybeans, avocados, etc

17

What are some Vitamin E deficiencies?

Rare
selenium deficiency causes white muscle disease

18

What are some functions of Vitamin K?

coagulation of blood
contributes to bone and tooth development

19

Where is Vitamin K found?

green vegetables

20

What are some Vitamin K deficiencies?

Rare (found in infants) by excessive bleeding.

21

Water soluble vitamins are absorbed where?

Small intestine

22

What are the functions of Vitamin B Complex?

healthy skin and muscle tone
enhance immune and nervous system
promote cell metabolism and growth
blood cell formation/maturation

23

What is the function of Vitamin C?

Antioxidant
formation of collagen to hold the cells together
improves ion absorption and resistance to infection
benefits of high doses to immune system are debatable

24

What are some deficiencies of Vitamin C?

Scurvy

25

Where are minerals found?

all food groups
animal products

26

How are minerals classified?

Macro and Micro

27

What are some types of Macro minerals?

Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, S, Cl

28

What are some types of Micro minerals?

Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Se, I, Mn, Co

29

Macro minerals are presented in the body in larger or smaller amounts compared to micro?

Larger

30

What are the functions of Calcium?

bone structure
nerve function
blood clotting

31

Where is calcium found?

dairy products, green vegetables

32

What are some Calcium deficiencies?

Rickets, osteoporosis, milk fever

33

What are the functions of Phosphorous?

Bone development, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, blood pH.

34

What are some Phosphorous deficiencies?

rickets, osteoporosis, pica, low fertility, poor milk production

35

What are some functions of Sodium?

acid-base and osmotic balance of body fluids
nerve conduction
major cation of extracellular fluid

36

What are some functions of chloride?

acid-base osmotic regulation
HCl and chloride salts in intestine secretions

37

What are some functions of Sulfur?

involved in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis
necessary for the formation of collagen

38

What is the deficiency related to Sulfur?

protein deficiency

39

What are some functions of Magnesium?

associated with Ca and P
energy metabolism
involved in enzyme activities

40

What are some functions of Potassium?

Acid-base osmotic regulation
nerve and muscle function
co-factor in several reactions involving carbohydrate metabolism

41

Can overfeeding Potassium lead to metabolic disorders?

Yes

42

What are some functions of Iron?

oxygen transport via hemoglobin
Immune system function
cellular energy metabolism

43

What are some iron deficiencies?

nutritional deficiency

44

What are some functions of copper?

energy metabolism
iron metabolism
bone strength

45

What are some copper deficiencies?

Neuro degeneration in animals and humans
decrease wool/hair growth

46

What are some functions of Selenium?

protect cells from damage by free radicals
important antioxidant function
very narrow range between deficiency and toxicity

47

What are some examples of selenium deficiency?

Keshans Disease
cardiac muscle degeneration
white muscle disease
increased mortality
poor growth

48

What are some functions of Iodine?

aids in production of thyroid hormones
necessary for healthy hair and teeth

49

What are some deficiencies in iodine?

common in areas where there is little iodine in the diet

50

What does cobalt do?

synthesis

51

What does Chromium do?

immune function

52

What does Zinc do?

DNA and immune function

53

What does Molybdenum do?

excessive dietary intake can reduce a copper deficiency.