Meat and the Meat Industry Flashcards Preview

AVS 109 > Meat and the Meat Industry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Meat and the Meat Industry Deck (39):
1

What percentage of the carcass weight is skeletal muscle?

35-65%

2

What is the composition of skeletal muscle?

75% water
18.5% protein
3% lipid
1% carbohydrate

3

What is HACCP?

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

4

What is the purpose of HAACP?

To prevent, reduce, or minimize biological, physical, and chemical hazards associated with foods.

5

What is the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act?

Humane methods shall be used for handling and slaughtering livestock.
Livestock must be rendered insensible to pain before shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut.

6

Do disabled livestock have to be separated?

Yes, and in a covered pen.

7

What is used for Immobilization?

V-Belt
Center Track Conveyor

8

What is used for stunning methods?

Electrical
Captive Bolt
Carbon Dioxide

9

What is exsanguination?

bleeding

10

Exsanguination results in what?

Loss of circulation
loss of oxygen/nutrients
shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism
loss of metabolic waste product removal
loss of temperature regulation
loss of controlled neural function

11

What is PSE?

Pale, Soft, and Exudative

12

What is DFD?

Dark, Firm, and Dry

13

What factors affect pigment concentration?

muscle fiber type, species, age, gender, activity, pH decline

14

What is rigor mortis?

stiffness of death

15

What are factors of meat tenderness?

muscle location/function, connective tissue, sarcomere length

16

What is calpains?

endogenous enzymes

17

Do Bos Indicus cattle have elevated calpastatin?

Yes.
It reduces meat tenderization.

18

What is the purpose of carcass grading?

to segregate a variable population of carcasses into groups that are more uniform in composition or eating quality.

19

What is marbling?

Intramuscular fat

20

Ferric state (oxidized state)

Fe+++

21

Ferrous (reduced state)

Fe++

22

What meat color has a Ferrous State?

Deoxymyoglobin and Oxymyoglobin

23

What meat color has a Ferric State?

Metmyoglobin

24

Antioxidant you can feed to animals is...

Vitamin E

25

What is myoglobin?

oxygen binding protein

26

What is hemoglobin?

iron that binds to oxygen in the blood

27

What is the primary purpose for meat darkening?

Accumulation of myoglobin

28

What is the approximate normal pH of meat?

5.5

29

What does myo mean?

Muscle

30

What is DFD associated with?

Long term stress

31

In DFD, do muscles have an increased ability to trap water?

Yes

32

Does DFD hold more or less water?

More

33

Why is water capacity important?

yield of product
nutrient content
appearance
brine uptake, processing yield
juciness

34

What is water holding primarily affected by?

Amount of denatured protein
net protein charge and filament spacing

35

Lipid in meat

provides oil barrier around muscle bundles during cooking

36

What is rigor mortis caused by?

ATP depletion and permanent actinmyosin crossbridge formation.

37

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate (energy currency in cells)
Converted to ADP

38

Rigor Mortis is the cause of what?

sarcomere shortening and rigor shortening

39

What is collagen?

connective tissue protein