Flashcards in Meat and the Meat Industry Deck (39):
What percentage of the carcass weight is skeletal muscle?
What is the composition of skeletal muscle?
What is HACCP?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
What is the purpose of HAACP?
To prevent, reduce, or minimize biological, physical, and chemical hazards associated with foods.
What is the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act?
Humane methods shall be used for handling and slaughtering livestock.
Livestock must be rendered insensible to pain before shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut.
Do disabled livestock have to be separated?
Yes, and in a covered pen.
What is used for Immobilization?
Center Track Conveyor
What is used for stunning methods?
What is exsanguination?
Exsanguination results in what?
Loss of circulation
loss of oxygen/nutrients
shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism
loss of metabolic waste product removal
loss of temperature regulation
loss of controlled neural function
What is PSE?
Pale, Soft, and Exudative
What is DFD?
Dark, Firm, and Dry
What factors affect pigment concentration?
muscle fiber type, species, age, gender, activity, pH decline
What is rigor mortis?
stiffness of death
What are factors of meat tenderness?
muscle location/function, connective tissue, sarcomere length
What is calpains?
Do Bos Indicus cattle have elevated calpastatin?
It reduces meat tenderization.
What is the purpose of carcass grading?
to segregate a variable population of carcasses into groups that are more uniform in composition or eating quality.
What is marbling?
Ferric state (oxidized state)
Ferrous (reduced state)
What meat color has a Ferrous State?
Deoxymyoglobin and Oxymyoglobin
What meat color has a Ferric State?
Antioxidant you can feed to animals is...
What is myoglobin?
oxygen binding protein
What is hemoglobin?
iron that binds to oxygen in the blood
What is the primary purpose for meat darkening?
Accumulation of myoglobin
What is the approximate normal pH of meat?
What does myo mean?
What is DFD associated with?
Long term stress
In DFD, do muscles have an increased ability to trap water?
Does DFD hold more or less water?
Why is water capacity important?
yield of product
brine uptake, processing yield
What is water holding primarily affected by?
Amount of denatured protein
net protein charge and filament spacing
Lipid in meat
provides oil barrier around muscle bundles during cooking
What is rigor mortis caused by?
ATP depletion and permanent actinmyosin crossbridge formation.
What is ATP?
Adenosine Triphosphate (energy currency in cells)
Converted to ADP
Rigor Mortis is the cause of what?
sarcomere shortening and rigor shortening