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Flashcards in Animals Deck (83):
1

Tight junctions

Prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells

2

Desmosomes

Connected to cytoskeleton
Space between: spot rivets

3

Gap junctions

Ions pass between cells

4

Development

Single cell -> blastula -> gastrula

5

Blastula

Hollow ball of cells
Stage of embryonic development

6

Blastocoel

Cavity of blastula

7

Gastrulation

Cells move from outside of blastula to inside

8

Archenteron

Gut

9

Protostome

"1st the mouth"
8 cell stage: top tier of cells sits in the furrow of the bottom tier (spiral and determinate)
Mesoderm splits to form coelom
Mouth develops from blastophore

10

Blastophore

Opening of gastrula

11

Deuterostome

"2nd the mouth"
8 cell stage: cells stack on top of each other
Each cell is capable of forming a larva
Folds of archenteron form coelom
Anus develops from blastophore

12

Radial symmetry

Distinct top and bottom sides
No distinct left and right sides

13

Bilateral symmetry

Distinct top, bottom, right, and left sides

14

Coelom

Body cavity

15

Diploblast

Only ectoderm and endoderm

16

Ectoderm and endoderm

Outside cell layer and inside cell layer of embryo, respectively

17

Triploblast

Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

18

Coelomate

Mesoderm tissue layers line ectoderm and coelom (suspend internal organs)

19

Pseudocoelomate

Mesoderm lines ectoderm, but not coelom
Fluid lines coelom

20

Acoelomate

Mesoderm tissue fills space between digestive tract and ectoderm

21

Porifera

Sponges
No true tissues
Hermaphrodites
Sessile (stuck to site)
Flagellated swimming larvae

22

Sponge body plan

Pores
Spongocoel (central cavity)
Choanocytes (flagellated and collared cells that engulf food)
Ameobocytes (eat food, carry nutrients, manufacture skeletal fibers)
Osculum (large opening)

23

Cnidaria

Jellies, corals, hydras
Radial symmetry
Central gastrovascular cavity
Diploblastic
2 forms: polyp (hydra) or medusae (jelly)
Asexual (budding) and sexual reproduction

24

Cnidocytes

Structures on cnidaria tentacles that release sticky chemicals that bind and/or stun prey
Nematocysts: more complex cnidocytes

25

Hydrozoa

Cnidarians
Hydra

26

Scyphozoa

Cnidarians
Jellyfishes
No polyps

27

Cubozoa

Cnidarians
Box-shaped
Lens and cornea, but no brain
Simple light-sensing cells
Sea wasp

28

Anthozoa

Cnidarians
Coral and anemone
No medusae
Contain symbiotic bacteria

29

Lophotrochozoa

Bilateral symmetry
Triploblastic
Most are coelomates

30

Lophophore

Crown of feeding tentacles

31

Trocophore

Ciliated larval stage

32

Platyhelminthes

Lophotrochozoans
Flatworms
Acoelomate
Gas exchange and waste: diffusion
Gastrovascular cavity: one opening and branching
Parasitic: require 2 hosts (Flukes)
Regenerative abilities
Eyespots (planaria)

33

Turbellaria

Platyhelminthes
Typical flatworms

34

Monogenea

Platyhelminthes
No complex 2-host life cycles

35

Trematoda

Platyhelminthes
Flukes
Complex 2-host life cycles

36

Cestoda

Platyhelminthes
Tapeworms
Scolex: mouth
Proglottids: sacs of sex organs

37

Rotifers

Lophotrocozoans
Pseudocoelomate
Alimentary canal
Suspension feeders
Parthenogenesis: females lay eggs that develop into grown females (no sperm required)
Rotifer ("wheel bearer"): crown of cilia that draws in food

38

Ectoprocta

Lophotrocozoans
Coelomates
U-shaped alimentary canals
Lophophores: suspension feeders
Bryozoans: colonial reef builders

39

Brachiopods

Lophotrocozoans
Coelomates
U-shaped alimentary canals
Lophophores: suspension feeders
Lamp shells

40

Mollusca

Lophotrocozoans
Coelomates
Foot: muscular, movement
Visceral mass: contains internal organs
Mantle: tissue that secretes shell
Radula: "tongue" with teeth for scraping
Trochopores
Reproduction: mostly separate sexes, some hermaphrodites

41

Polyplacophora

Mollusks
"Many plates"
Herbivores
Radula: scrape algae
Strong muscular foot: difficult to dislodge

42

Gastropoda

Mollusks
"Stomach foot"
No shell: slugs
Simple shell: limpet
Coiled shell: snails

43

Bivalvia

Mollusks
Clams, mussels, scallops, and oysters
Suspension feeders
2-part hinged shell
No head or radula

44

Cephalopoda

Mollusks
"Head foot"
Squid, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus
Carnivores: tentacles and beak-like jaw
Shell reduced or missing
Well developed sense organs and brain
Closed circulatory system

45

Annelida

Lophotrocozoans
Worms and leeches
Coelomates
Segmented
Closed circulatory systems
No heart
Alimentary canal

46

Oligochaeta

Annelids
"Few hairs"
Earthworms and leeches
Worms: chaetae (chitin bristles)
Leeches: no chaetae, predators or parasites, hirudin (chemical secreted to prevent blood from coagulating)

47

Polychaeta

Annelids
"Many bristles"
Parapodia: ridges/paddles used for moving
Chaetae
Free living or tube dwellers

48

Ecdysozoa

Bilateral
Protostomes
Exoskeletons

49

Ecdysis

Molting

50

Nematoda

Ecdysozoans
Round worms
Pseudocoelomates
Alimentary canal
Free-living or parasite
Usually separate sexes
C. elegans: model organism for genetics, hermaphrodite
Trichinella spiralis: causes trichinosis, hatch in intestine and burrow into other tissues

51

Arthropoda

Ecdysozoans
Coelomates
Segmented
Jointed appendages
Open circulatory system w/ hemolymph
Gas exchange: gills, trachael system, or book lungs
Exoskeleton made of chitin (provide protection, support muscles, prevent desiccation)

52

Cheliceriformes

Arthropods
Horseshoe crabs, arachnids
Chelicerae: claw-like feeding appendages
Pedipalps: sensory organs located near anterior end (pincers in scorpions)
Cephalothorax and abdomen
6 pairs of appendages (4 pairs of legs, 1 pair chelicerae, 1 pair pedipalps)
Single-lens eyes
Spiders: booklungs

53

Myriapoda

Arthropods
Millipedes and centipedes
Antannae
Mandibles: jaw-like mouthparts
Many legs: millipedes 2/segment, centipedes 1/segment
Millipedes: herbivores
Centipedes: carnivores

54

Hexapoda

Arthropods
Insects
3 body regions: head, thorax, abdomen
Wings
3 pairs of legs, antennae, specialized mouthparts
Compound eyes

55

Incomplete metamorphosis

Eggs -> nymphs -> adults

56

Complete metamorphosis

Eggs -> larva -> pupa -> adult

57

Crustacea

Arthropods
Shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, barnacles
Body in 2-3 parts
2 pairs of antennae, 3 or more legs, 3 or more appendages for chewing
Compound eyes
Gills
Exoskeleton hardened w/ calcium carbonate

58

Echinodermata

"Spiny skin"
Starfish and sea urchins
Endoskeleton of calcified plates
Water vascular system: moving, feeding, gas exchange
Larvae: bilateral symmetry
Adult: imperfect radial symmetry
Reproduction: males and females release gametes into water

59

Echinodermata body plan

Ring canal, 5 radial canals
Tube feet: ampulla, sucker podium
Madreporite (mother pore)
"Nervous system:" nerve ring and nerve cords

60

Asteroides

Echinodermates
Sea stars

61

Ophiuroidea

Echinodermates
Brittle stars

62

Echinoidea

Echinodermates
Urchins and sand dollars
Sea urchins: experimental model for developmental biology, edible gonads

63

Crinoidea

Echinodermates
Feather stars

64

Holothuroidea

Echinodermates
Sea cucumbers

65

Chordates

Notochord: part of mesoderm that directs building of nerve tube under ectoderm
Pharyngeal slits: invertebrates- filter feeding, fish-gills, tetrapods- ear, head, neck
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Post-anal tail

66

Cephalochordata

Lancelets or amphioxus
Larval and adult stages have chordate characteristics
Somite: forms muscles in amphioxus, forms vertebrae, ribs, back muscles, and more in vertebrates

67

Urochordata

Tunicates/Sea Squirts
Larval stage has chordate characteristics
Adult sessile

68

Craniate Characteristics

Head with sense organs and brain enclosed in skull
Neural crest cells
Higher metabolic rate
2 chambered heart
Hemoglobin in red blood cells
Kidneys
Pharyngeal slits become respiratory gills

69

Neural crest cells

Give rise to teeth, bones and cartilage of skull, dermis of face, certain types of neurons
Involved in development of eyes and other sense organs

70

Myxini

Craniates
Hagfishes
Cartilaginous skull
No jaws or vertebrae
Slime glands

71

Vertebrate characteristics

More extensive skull
Backbone/vertebrae and internal skeleton
Paired muscle masses
Central nervous system
Heart w/ 2 or more chambers

72

Petromyzontida

Vertebrates
Lampreys (jawless fishes)
Skeleton made of cartilage
No jaws
Larval stage looks like a lancelet (cephalochordate)
Adults retain notochord

73

Gnathostomes

Vertebrates
Jaws-hinged mouth gripping
Evolution from pharyngeal slits
Addition duplications of Hox genes

74

Chondrichthyes

Gnathostomes
Sharks, rays and ratfishes
Cartilaginous skeleton
Cloaca: single opening for intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts

75

Osteichthyes

Gnathostomes
Ray fin fishes and lobe fin fishes
Bony skeleton
Rod shaped bones in pectoral and pelvic fins
Some have lungs

76

Tetrapods

4 feet and limbs
Head separated from body by neck
Pharyngeal slits turn into ears

77

Urodela

Amphibians
Salamanders

78

Anura

Amphibians
Frogs
Metamorphosis

79

Apoda

Caecilians (legless amphibians)
Gas exchange via lungs and skin

80

Amniotes

Amniotic egg
Amnion: membrane that covers embryo
Chorion: gas exchange
Allantois: waste disposal
Yolk sac: nutrients for embryo

81

Reptilia

Leathery shelled eggs
Ectothermic
Tuatara
Squamates (scaled reptiles)
Turtles
Crocodilians
Birds

82

Aves

Reptiles
Birds
Large brain to body size
Loss or fusion of bones
Highly pneumatic skeleton
No teeth in jaw
4 chambered heart
Air sacs for efficient respiration
Endothermic
Feathers

83

Mammalia

Hair
Mammary glands
Endothermic
4 chambered heart
Diaphragm