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Flashcards in Ankle Deck (29):
1

List the key bony components of the ankle

medial malleolus
tibial plafond
talar dome
lateral malleolus
(posterior malleolus)

2

List the key tendons of the ankle

peroneal tendons
achilles tendon

3

List the ligaments of the ankle

Lateral: ATF, CF

Posterior: PTF, CF, PITF

Medial: deltoid

Anterior: AITF, syndesmotic

4

The ______ ligaments control the relationship between the tibia and the fibula

syndesmotic

5

List the order of ligaments involved in ankle sprains

ATFL--> CFL-->PTFL

6

Syndesmotic ligaments are involved in ______ ankle sprains

high

7

Anterior drawer sign on the ankle suggests involvement of the _____ ligament

ATF

8

Anterior drawer sign of the ankle in addition to gross dislocation suggests:

ATFL and CFL are torn
PTFL likely torn

9

Anterior drawer sign of the ankle in addition to gross dislocation suggests:

ATFL and CFL are torn
PTFL likely torn

10

Anterior drawer sign and inversion laxity/ talar tilt suggests:

ATF and CF torn

11

CFL disruption is associated with _______, as seen on x ray

inversion laxity- tild of talus creates a wedge shaped joint space

12

How are ankle sprains treated?

RICE
good recovery but variable timeline

13

Ligaments involved in ankle sprains are ________, thus have good blood supply and capacity to heal

extra-articular

14

List four ankle sprain "impersonators"

Fractures of talar dome
Anterior process calcaneal fractures
Lateral process talus fractures
Peroneal tendon dislocations

15

What demographic of patients are at risk for achiles tendon rupture

middle aged individuals, starting new athletic activity

16

What is the classic history for an achilles tendon rupture?

Playing a sport, sudden pop, felt like they were kicked in the back of the leg

17

Describe findings on Thomson test that suggest achilles tendon rupture

Squeeze calf muscle, lift upward- no plantar flexion noted

should get passive plantar flexion if achilles is intact

18

Treatment of an achilles tendon rupture can be ______ or _______

operative or non-operative

19

Malleolar fractures are more ____, pilon fractures are more _____

malleolar more common
pilon more severe

20

What mechanism of injury causes malleolar fracture

torsion and bending

21

What mechanism of injury causes pilon fracture?

high energy axial load- crushing

22

Describe possible patterns of malleolar fracture

- Medial Malleolar Fracture
- Lateral Malleolar Fracture (Fibula)
- Posterior Malleolar Fracture
- Bimalleolar Fracture: Medial and Lateral Malleolar Fractures
- Trimalleolar Fracture: Medial, Lateral, and Posterior Malleolar Fractures

23

Describe possible patterns of malleolar fracture

- Medial Malleolar Fracture
- Lateral Malleolar Fracture (Fibula)
- Posterior Malleolar Fracture
- Bimalleolar Fracture: Medial and Lateral Malleolar Fractures
- Trimalleolar Fracture: Medial, Lateral, and Posterior Malleolar Fractures

24

What is the most common pattern of a malleolar fracture

Bi-malleolar- medial and lateral

25

The goal of all approaches to ankle fracture care is to restore ___________ of the ankle joint

mortise alignment

26

A normal ankle mortise has _________ joint space

symmetric

27

Fractures with an intact mortise are treated ________

non-operatively- cast or boot

28

Fractures that disrupt the mortise alignment of the ankle are treated _______

surgically

29

How are ligamentous injuries that accompany ankle fractures managed?

Don't necessarily need surgical repair- as soon as the mortise is reduced, the ligaments can heal on their own