Hand, wrist, elbow- bones and joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hand, wrist, elbow- bones and joints Deck (30)
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1

List the carpal bones

proximal: scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
distal: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

2

What motions are possible at the elbow?

bending- flexion/ extension
rotation- pronation and supination

3

What motions are possible at the wrist?

multiplanar movement- flexion/ extension and radial/ ulnar deviation

4

In radiographs of the wrist, ________ should not overlap

Gilula's lines- between proximal and distal rows of carpal bones

5

In radiographs of the wrist, ________ should not overlap

Gilula's lines- between proximal and distal rows of carpal bones

6

Distinguish between direct and indirect bone healing

direct: bones are rigidly fixed, no callus formation
indirect: periosteal healing via callus formation

7

List four factors that contribute to greater incidence of non-healing of scaphoid fractures

1. poor blood supply
2. delayed diagnosis
3. intra-articular location
4. mechanical instability

8

The more _____ a scaphoid fracture, the farther away from blood supply and less likely to heal it is

proximal

9

The wrist should be immobilized if a patient has __________ tenderness after a fall

anatomic snuffbox

10

_____ could aid in earlier diagnosis of scaphoid fractures

MRI

11

How does intra-articular location contribute to non-healing of scaphoid fractures?

scaphoid is covered in cartilage, so no callus formation and no periosteum contributing to healing cells

12

________ scaphoid fractures are often not evident on initial radiographs and may not be visible for several weeks

non-displaced

13

List some strategies to improve scaphoid healing

- improve blood supply using vascularized bone grafts
- restore mechanical stability by rigid internal screw fixation

14

________ are the most common fractures of the hand and wrist

distal radial fractures

15

Distal radial fractures often cause angulation leading to a classic ______ appearance

dinnerfork deformity

16

Angulated fractures of the fifth metacarpal are also called ______ fractures

Boxer's

17

How to boxer's fractures usually occur?

striking another person or object

18

Intra-articular fractures of the first metacarpal caused by axial load against a flexed metacarpal are also called _______ fractures

Bennett's

19

Why are Bennett's fractures often unstable?

free articular fragment is held in place by stout ligaments, while the metacarpal is adducted by the adductor and pulled proximally by the abductor policis longus

20

________ fractures often occur in conjunction with distal radial fractures

Ulnar styloid

21

________ fractures often occur in conjunction with distal radial fractures

Ulnar styloid

22

______ is a common subtype of phalangeal fracture

mallet fractures

23

What injury occurs when the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint pulls its distal bony insertion away from the rest of the proximal phalanx?

Bony skier's thumb
-- a ligamentous bony avulsion

24

Mallet finger is due to ________ tendon tear and can be have bony avulsion as well

extensor

25

How to dorsal triquetral fractures occur?

dorsal portion of the triquetrum is pinched between the ulnar styloid and hamate, usually a FOOSH injury

26

Tennis elbow fits into a broad group of disorders known as _________

enthesopathies

27

Tennis elbow could also be called ________

lateral epicondylosis

28

What is the primary tendon involved in tennis elbow

extensor carpi radialis brevis

29

Describe the histology of tennis elbow

abnormal collagen and matrix production--> dense blue cellular regions, angiofibroblastic hyperplasia

30

What treatments can be used for tennis elbow?

- conservative: stretching, counterforce bracing
- ultrasound, acupuncture, steroid injection, dextrose injection
- surgery to excise the degenerative tendon origin and remove the outer lateral epicondyle