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Diagnostic Imaging > Ankle and Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ankle and Foot Deck (37):
1

What are the Ottawa ankle rules?

- If there is pain in malleolar zone

AND

- Bone pain in the posterior edge or tip of the medial or lateral malleolus
- Can't weight bear immediately in clinic

2

What are the Ottawa foot rules?

- Pain in midfoot

AND

- Bone pain in base of 5th MT or navicular
- Can't weight bear immediately or in clinic

3

What is the 1 - 2 intermetatarsal angle?

- Bisection of 1st and 2nd MT

4

What is the Hallux Valgus angle?

- Bisection of 1st MT and proximal phalanx

5

What is mild, moderate, and severe 1-2 intermetarsal angle?

Mild: < 11 degrees
Mod: < 15 degrees
Sev: 15 < degrees

6

What is a mild, moderate, and severe hallux valgus angle?

Mild: < 20 degrees
Mod: 20 - 40 degrees
Sev: 40 < degrees

7

What is the WB lateral view of the foot used to measure?

Longitudinal arch measurements

8

What is the NWB lateral view of the foot used to assess?

Trauma

9

What is the Boehler angle? What does is its use? What is normal?

- Calcaneal fractures
- Line joining anterior and posterior calcaneal facets
- Line through posterior facet and superior posterior process

Normal: 25 - 40 degrees

10

What is the Talometatarsal angle? What is its use? What is normal?

Assesses flat foot

- Line bisecting the (long-axis) of 1st MT
- Line bisecting the (long-axis) of the talus

Normal: 0 - 10 degrees

11

What is Calcaneal Inclination? What is its use? What is normal?

Assesses flat foot

- Line joining inferior limit of distal calcaneal facet and inferior distal tuberosity
- Plane of support
- Normal 20 - 30 degrees

12

What is measured in an inversion or stress view? What is considered abnormal?

- Inversion or eversion applied manually
- > 10 degree for either is considered abnormal

13

What is assessed in a sesamoid view?

- Position of the sesamoids in the groove

14

What is a unimalleolar fracture?

- Medial or lateral malleolus is fractured

15

What is a bimalleolar fracture?

- Medial and lateral are fractured

16

What is a trimalleolar fracture?

- Medial and lateral malleoli are fractured
- Posterior tibial rim is fractured

17

What is the second most fractured bone in the foot?

The talus.

18

Which aspect of the talus is fractured most commonly?

- The neck

19

What is there a high incidence of with respect to talar fractures?

- AVN
- Subtalar and ankle DJD

20

What can help prevent the incidence of AVN in talar fractures?

- Open reduction
- Internal fixation

21

What age and gender are most susceptible to adult acquired flatfoot?

- Women, 45 - 65 y/o

22

What are 4 lifestyle factors that can contribute to adult acquired flatfoot?

- Diabetes
- Seroneg Arthropathies
- Overweight
- Smoking

23

What soft tissue dysfunction is associated with adult acquired flatfoot?

- Posterior tivialis tendonitis/ rupture

24

What is the process of adult acquired flatfoot in relation to posterior tibial dysfunction?

- Loss of dynamic control of medial longitudinal arch
- Stretches static stabilizers

25

During what phases of gait is supination lacking with PTT?

- TSt
- PSw

26

Where will pain be felt with PTT?

- Medial malleolus

27

Which stages of adult acquired flatfoot may be recovered from?

Stage I and II

28

What is stage I of adult acquired flat foot?

- Painful synovitis of PTT, tender to palpation
- Tendon length and function maintained, strength may be 5/5`

29

What is stage II of adult acquired flatfoot?

- Progressive tendon dysfunction
- Weakness and tendon lengthening
- Flexible flatfoot develops

30

What is stage III of adult acquired flatfoot?

- Deformity becomes rigid
- Stiff/ arthrosis

31

What is stage IV of adult acquired flatfoot?

- Tibiotalar valgus
- Arthritic changes progress

32

What is conservative treatment for stage I and II AAFF?

- Orthosis
- Inflammation reduction
- Stretching
- High repetition plantar flexor training

33

What are 4 surgical options to treat flatfoot?

- Transfer FDL to navicula
- Implant plug to limit subtalar eversion (subtalar arthroereisis)
- Calcaneal osteotomy (Reposition 2 halves of calcaneus so that plantar flexors invert during late stance phase
- Arthrodesis (drill joint, and fuse it)

34

What 3 joints may recieve arthrodesis?

- Talonavicular
- Calcaneal cuboid
- Subtalar

35

What are 3 indications for arthrodesis?

- Correct hyperpronantion/ painful flexible flatfoot
- Severe subtalar DJD
- Trauma

36

What imaging technique is good for assessing stress fractures?

Bone scan

37

How is a bone scan assessed for a stress fracture?

- Look for hot spots where radioisotopes are taken up, indicating high metabolic activity
- Compare bilaterally as growth plates also show up as hot spots