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Flashcards in Search Pattern Deck (61):
1

What are the 2 errors of observation?

- Missing a significant finding (false negative)
- Identifying a normal variant as abnormal (false +)

2

What is an error of interpretation?

- Failure to link radiologic findings to clinical data

3

What are the ABCs of search patterns?

- Alignment
- Bone density
- Cartilage
- Soft tissues

4

What are the 3 categories of alignment?

- Skeletal architecture
- Contour of bone
- Alignment of adjacent bones

5

What are 4 types of skeletal architecture abnormalities?

- Aberrant size
- Extra (supernumerary) bones
- Absent bones
- Developmental deformities

6

What are 3 contour of bone abnormalities?

- Interal/ external irregularities
- Smooth/ cortical outline
- Spurs

7

What are 3 alignment of adjacent bone abnormalities?

- Fractures
- Dislocations
- Subluxations

8

What does aberrant size mean?

A structure is either too large or too small.

9

What can cause a false abberant size?

- Distortion caused by unequal distance from the image receptor

10

What is acromegaly?

- Increased size of structures due to extra production of GH.

11

What type of aberrant size does Paget's disease cause?

- Increased trabeculae and cortical thickening

12

What is a fabella?

Pattela like bone on posterior knee.

13

What are 6 examples of supernumerary bones?

- Extra rays
- Extra distal phalanx
- Surgical rib
- Sesamoid bones within tendons (calcificaiton)
- Extra toes
- Extra phalanges in thumb

14

How is TO related to supernumerary bones?

- Surgical rib compresses brachial plexus, and vasculature.

15

What are two causes of absent bones?

- Congenital
- Post surgical

16

What are 2 examples of developmental deformities affecting alignment?

- Scoliosis
- Genu varum

17

What are 4 types of internal/ external irregularities related to alignment?

- Pathologic changes
- Traumatic injuries
- Developmental
- Congenital

18

What do breaks in the cortical outline indicate?

- Fracture

19

What are exostoses and spurs?

Spurs: osteophytes
Exotoses: calcification after a bleed

20

What is a Salter-Harris injury?

- Fracture that disrupts joint alignment

21

What are the differences between dislocations and subluxations?

Dislocation: No joint congruence
Subluxation: Partially congruent

22

What differentiates bone from soft tissue in a radograph?

Bone density.

23

What else does bone density help to differentiate?

- Cortical from trabecular bone.

24

How is the texture of trabeculae described?

- Descriptive term that lacks precise definition:

Ex)
- fluffy
- smudged
- coarsening
- lacy

25

What is sclerosis in relation to bone?

- Localized increase in bone density

26

What are 2 examples of excessive sclerosis?

- Normal fracture healing callus
- Abnormal calcification (OA)

27

What is reactive sclerosis?

- Body acts to surround and encapsulate an infection or tumor

28

What is the term for reactive sclerosis due to an infection?

Osteomyelitis.

29

What is a bony tumor called?

Osteosarcoma.

30

What is a sign that bone is growing too fast?

- The bone does not have a cortex.

31

What explains normal sclerotic processes?

Wolff's law.

32

What are 3 elements of cartilage space?

- Joint space width
- Subchondral bone
- Epiphyseal plates

33

What is meant by the width of the joint space?

Width of the cartilage

34

When might there be an actual joint space?

During traction.

35

Which compartment of the knee has thicker cartilage?

The medial compartment.

36

What are 3 effects of increased sclerosis in subchondral bone?

- Loss of cartilage; linked with increased force through the joint (cause of, or caused by)
- Wears out bone
- Bony loss wears on cartilage

37

What are bony cysts?

- Erosion of bone
- Due to inflammatory arthritices
- Areas of round bony loss

38

What 3 characteristics of epiphyseal plates are evaluated in plain film?

- Position of primary and secondary growth centers
- Width of the plate
- Smoothness of the borders

39

What is difficult to evaluate in epiphyseal plates?

Fractures.

40

What alterations need to be made to evaluate soft tissue in plain film?

- Density
- Contrast

41

What are 6 soft tissue structures that may be examined on plain film?

- Muscles
- Fast pads/ fat lines
- Joint capsules
- Periosteum
- Gas
- Calcifications in soft tissue (myositis ossificans)

42

What causes myositis ossificans?

Bone formed in soft tissue due to deep bleeds/ bruises/ tears.

43

When may soft tissues become visible in plain film?

- When distended by intra-articular swelling

44

What are 4 types of periosteal changes that can be seen on plain film?

- Solid (due to fracture healing)
- Laminated (onion formation) due to repetitive injury
- Spiculated (malignant lesion)
- Codman's Triangle (aggressive bone tumor)

45

What is codman's triangle?

- Bony tumor

46

What are 7 categories of skeletal pathology?

- Congenital
- Inflammatory
- Metabolic
- Neoplastic
- Traumatic
- Vascular
- Other

47

What is an example of congenital skeletal pathology?

- Polydactylli (extra fingers)
- Club
- Coxa valga

48

WHat is an example of inflammatory skeletal pathology?

- RA
- Gout

49

What is an example of metabolic skeletal pathology?

- Osteoporosis

50

What is an example of neoplastic skeletal pathology?

- Osteosarcomas
- Osteophytes

51

What is an example of traumatic skeletal pathology?

- Bone fracture

52

What is an example of vascular skeletal pathology?

- Avascular necrosis (femoral head, scaphoid)

53

What are 11 variables that help diagnosis a skeletal lesion?

- Behavior (building, destroying)
- Bone or joint involved
- Locus within a bone
- Age, gender, and race of a patient
- Margin of the lesion (defined = better = slow growing)
- Shape of lesion
- Joint space crossed? (tumors don't cross. Infections do)
- Bony reaction
- Matrix production (some tumors produce intracellular matrix)
- Soft tissue changes
- History of trauma or surgery

54

What can a margin of a bony lesion tell us?

If it is well defined, the lesion is slow growing.

55

Why might matrix production indicate the type of skeletal lesion?

Tumors can produce matrix.

56

What non bony changes can diagnose a skeletal lesion?

Soft tissue.

57

If a lesion crosses a joint space, is it a tumor or an infection?

An infection.

58

What census type data can help define a skeletal lesion?

Age, gender, and race.

59

What is meant by a skeletal lesion's behavior?

- Building.
- Destroying

60

What features of the bone its self can help diagnose a skeletal lesion?

- The bone's reaction to the lesion
- The location, and joint's involved
- Where is lesion is focused/ spread through the bone (locus)

61

What can help diagnose a skeletal lesion during the patient interview?

- History of fractures
- Recent surgeries