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Diagnostic Imaging > L-spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in L-spine Deck (45):
1

How should the entire lumbar spine be aligned in an AP view?

In the frontal plane

2

How should the pedicles present in an AP view of the lumbar spine?

- Evenly

3

How should the SP present in an AP view of L-spine?

- Evenly spaced
- In midline

4

What shape should the atricular processes make in the L-spine?

Butterfly

5

What feature of the vertebrae in the L-spine will be not be as apparent as in other parts of the spine?

- Transverse processes

6

What shape should the lumbar bodies be in a lateral view?

Square

7

How can the disks be assessed in the lateral view?

Spaces between vertebrae

8

What related to the articular processes are easily visualied in the lateral view of the L-spine?

- Intervertebral foramina

9

Which part of which vertebrae should align with the sacral base in a WB film?

- Center of L3 over anterior 1/3 of sacral base.

10

What are the lines of alignment for the lumbar spine?

- Anterior body
- Posterior body
- Posterior spinal canal

11

Which lumbar view demonstrates the scotty dog view?

- Lumbar spine oblique

12

What 2 structures are easily visualized in the Scottie dog view of the lumbar spine?

- Ipsilateral facet joints
- Pars interarticularis

13

What is the pedicle in the scotty dog?

The eye

14

What forms the feet of the scottie dog?

- The inferior articular processes

15

What forms the nose of the scottie dog?

- Transverse process

16

What forms the ears and tail of the scottie dog?

Superior articular processes

17

What forms the neck of the scotty dog?

The pars interarticularis

18

What forms the body of the scottie dog?

The lamina and spinous processes

19

What is a spondylolisis?

Degeneration of the facet joints

20

What is a spondyloslisthesis?

Anterior or posterior displacements of one vertebra on another

21

What causes a true spondylolisthesis?

- Fracture

22

What causes a pseudospondylolisthesis?

- Degeneration

23

How is a spondylolisthesis differentiated from a pseudospondylolisthesis?

- Spinous process sign
- Fracture steps off at the level above
- Degenerative steps off at the level below

24

What are the grades of a spondylolisthesis?

1: 25 % overhang
2: 50 %
3: 75 %
4: 100 %
5: Vertebral body completely fallen off and displaced

25

What is a grade 5 spondylolisthesis called?

- Spondyloptosis

26

What does the lateral L5 - S1 visualize?

An enlarged view of the lumbosacral junction

27

What 3 things should be assessed in the L5 - S1 view?

- Lines of alignment
- Disk space, osteophytes
- Sacral tilt

28

What is a retrolithesis?

Backwards slip

29

What is an anterolithesis?

I think you know

30

What 3 things should be assessed in the SI joint AP axial view?

- R vs L symmetry
- Smooth osseous margins
- L5 - S1 segment

31

How are the R and L SI oblique views named?

For joint space visualized

32

How should the joint margins of the SI joint be assessed?

- Joint space width
- Signs of degeneration

33

What are 3 red flags for lumbar disk problems?

- Cauda equina syndrome
(Loss of bowel/ bladder function)
(Can also affect muscle strength and tone and DTR of knee and ankle)
- Saddle anethesia
- Worsening hard neuro signs

34

Besides red flags, why might you want to refer your patient out?

- Failed 6 week trial of best practice conservative therapy

35

What are "hard" neuro signs?

- Parathesias
- Weakness
- Deep tendon reflex
- Ataxia

36

What percentage of asymptomatic patients have disk herniations?

20 - 25 %

37

What is the risk of imaging for a lumbar disk problem?

- False negatives
- Unnecessary surgeries

38

What is central lumbar stenosis?

Compression of spine in spinal canal; often from disk herniation

39

What is a Sacrolitiitis?

- Inflammation of synovial portions of the SI joint

40

How will Sacrolitiitis appear in imaging?

- Joint too wide at first due to swelling
- Then too narrow due to osteophytes

41

What is ankylosing spondylitis?

- Inflammatory arthridity that results in bony fusion across joints

42

What are symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis?

- Stiffness starting in SI/ low lumbar spine
- Gradual spread to upper spine, extremity joints
- Can include ribs

43

Where will ankylosing spondylitis cause postural changes besides the back?

- The hips and knees

44

What is the effect of ankylosing spondylitis of the thoracic spine?

- Decreased cardiac function

45

How is the severity and irritability of ankylosing spondylitis?

- Low severity
- Very high irritability