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Flashcards in Intro Deck (38):
1

What 5 things does imaging help a PT visualize?

- Growth
- Development
- Healing
- Disease
- Pathology

2

What are 6 indications for the use of diagnostic imaging?

- When a clinical diagnosis is uncertain, and the patient management is affected by the diagnosis.
- When clinical red flags or sinister or systematic abnormalities need to be excluded.
- When the diagnosis is known, but the extent of injury/ complications are unknown and affect treatment
- Treatment has failed for unknown reasons
- Objective evidence required to document the presence, or progression of disease.
- When preoperative localization or planning information is needed

3

What 2 things does collaboration between PTs and other health professionals require?

- Understanding what each party has to offer
- Respecting professional boundaries

4

In direct access, PTs will need to refer patients for imaging. What 3 responsibilities will PTs have in regard to this future?

- Understand what studies are available, and what each type of imaging is appropriate for.
- Understand and integrate the radiologist's report
- Review radiographs with patients (Pt ed)

5

What is the PTs role in radiology?

- Collaborate with diagnoses

6

What roles do PTs not play in radiology?

- Prevention
- Treatment

7

What is radiology?

- Use of radiant energy and radioactive substances to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease.

8

What is the most effective means of demonstrating a bone or joint abnormality?

Conventional radiology/ plain film/ x-ray.

9

What are x-rays?

- Invisible radiations of the EM spectrum.

10

How is wavelength related to penetrating power?

Shorter wavelength --> More penetrating power.

11

By what 2 methods does x-ray imprint an image?

- Expose film
- Excite charged coupled device

12

What are the 3 correct terms for images produced by x-ray?

- Radiograph
- Plain film
- Conventional radiograph

13

What are the 2 elements of an x-ray vacuum tube, and what are their role?

Heated filament:
- Contains cathode (-)
- Source of electrons
Spinning Anode (+)
- Electrons crash into anode
- Energy lost in the form of x-ray protons

14

What controls x-ray emission/ beam size?

- Lead shutters/ also colluminate beams

15

How is the size of the x-ray beam determined by the operator?

- Visible light is also shown through lead shutters.

16

Once x-rays have passed through the x-ray vacuum, how is the image formed?

- Beam travels through patient
- Different density tissues absorb x-rays differing amounts
- X-rays exit patient
- Image intercepted by image receptor

17

What is the image that exits the patient termed?

- Aerial image

18

What are the 3 types of image receptors?

- Film/ screen
- Fluoroscopy
- Digital

19

What are film/screen image receptors?

- Cassettes that contain reflection and intensifying screens and photographic film

20

What effect do differing body parts have on film/screens?

- Different sizes for different body parts

21

Is film or digital better quality for plain film?

No difference.

22

What is another name for fluoroscopy?

- Dynamic radiographs

23

What are 3 uses of fluoroscopy?

- Motion studies
- Guiding needle placement to deeper anatomical structures
- Following the movement of contrast.

24

Where might contrast be tracked using fluoroscopy?

- Through GI tract
- Swallowing

25

What imaging is used for needle placement in more superficial areas?

- US

26

What vertebral injury is fluoroscopy used for?

Vertebral fractures.

27

What advantages does digital have over film?

- Post collection processing such as: zoom, overlay, contrast, etc...

28

Is the digital processing of x-rays a simple process?

No; there are many steps in converting X-ray to digital signal.

29

What is the advantage and disadvantage of fluoroscopy?

+: Motion
-: More exposure

30

What is the advantage of plain film?

- Hard, permanent copy

31

What are 6 disadvantages of film?

- Hard, permanent copy (misplacement, transport, storage)
- Can't alter image
- Image degrades over time
- Takes time for chemicals to develop
- Supplies are not reusable (cost, environmental damage)
- Possible higher radiation exposure

32

What are 7 advantages of digital?

- Post collection processing
- Portability/ access around the world of past and present images
- Image doesn't degrade over time
- May have soft or hard copy
- Computer assists in diagnosis
- Less supplies needed reducing cost and damage to environment
- May lead to less radiation exposure

33

What is the disadvantage of digital?

- Higher initial costs

34

How can the PT help guide the radiologist in their referral?

- History
- Signs/ symptoms
- Potential/ suspected problems

35

What are the 5 possible results of an imaging study?

- Positive for tentative clinical Dx
- Negative for tentative clinical Dx
- Negative for tentative clinical Dx, but suggestive of another Dx
- Inconclusive; requires further imaging
- Wrong Dx caused by false negative/ false positive

36

What is required most of the time to diagnose with imaging?

- Correlation with clinical findings

37

How much does a typical series of 5 radiographs cost?

- 350 doillars

38

What is the routine strength of an x-ray?

2000 - 3000 mrad

(milli)rad