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Flashcards in ANS Julia deck Deck (215)
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1

How is the peripheral nervous system divided up?

Autonomic and somatic nervous systems

2

How is the autonomic nervous system divided up?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

3

What two neurotransmitters are associated only with the sympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

4

What neurotransmitter is released by both parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons?

Acetylcholine

5

Where do parasympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse with postganglionic neurons?

At ganglia near target organ

6

What neurotransmitter do parasympathetic preganglionic neurons release? What kind of receptors are activated by this neurotransmitter at this location?

Acetylcholine; activates nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons

7

What neurotransmitter do parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release? What kind of receptors are activated by this neurotransmitter at this location?

Acetylcholine; activates muscarinic receptors on the target organ

8

Where do sympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse with postganglionic neurons?

In the paravertebral sympathetic ganglion, near the spinal cord.

9

What neurotransmitter do sympathetic preganglionic neurons release? What kind of receptors are activated by this neurotransmitter at this location?

Acetylcholine; activates nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons

10

What neurotransmitter do sympathetic postganglionic neurons release? What kind of receptors are activated by this neurotransmitter at this location?

Norepinephrine; activates adrenergic receptors on target organs

11

What autonomic nervous system controls sweat glands?

Sympathetic nervous system

12

The only postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system that release acetylcholine are in the...

sweat glands involved with thermoregulation.

13

What autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscle of the renal vascular bed?

Sympathetic nervous system

14

What neurotransmitter do postganglionic sympathetic neurons release at the kidney vascular bed?

Dopamine -- precursor to NE, causes vasodilation.

15

What is unique about sympathetic innervation of the adrenal glands?

The preganglionic neurons do not synapse in the paravertebral ganglion. Instead, preganglionic neurons synapse directly on the adrenal gland and release acetylcholine to nicotinic receptors. Adrenal glands act like the postganglionic neuron because the release epinephrine.

16

What are two other names for cholinergic drugs?

Muscarinic agonists and parasympathomimetics

17

What are two other names for muscarinic antagonists?

Anticholinergics and parasympatholytics

18

What are two other names for sympathomimetics?

Adrenergics or adrenergic agonists

19

What are two other names for antiadrenergics?

Adrenergic antagonist and sympatholytic

20

Name three parts of the body where you can find nicotinic receptors.

Ganglion, skeletal muscle, and neuronal CNS

21

How many subunits compose the nicotinic receptor?

Five

22

Where is the M3 muscarinic receptor found?

Smooth muscle in glands -- causes contraction that releases gland contents

23

Where is the M2 muscarinic receptor found?

The heart -- decreases heart rate.

24

What kind of receptor is a muscarinic receptor?

A 7 transmembrane domain GPCR or heterotrimeric G protein receptor

25

What kind of G alpha subunit do M1, M3, and M5 receptors release?

Gq subunits

26

What net effect does M1, M3, and M5 receptor activation cause?

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and increased levels of calcium

27

What effector does the Gq subunit act on once activated by M1, M3, or M5 receptors?

Phospholipase C (PLC) which splits PIP2 into DAG and IP3

28

What kind of G alpha subunit do M2 and M4 receptors release?

Gio subunits

29

What is the net effect of M2 and M4 receptor activation?

Decreased cAMP formation, which decreases PKA activity, and opening of potassium channels.

30

In what major organ are alpha-1 adrenergic receptors located and what is their effect?

In the smooth muscle around arteries -- causes vasoconstriction which increases BP