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1

What are 3 types of liquid dosage forms?

SolutionEmulsionSuspension

2

What is the definition of a solution?

A homogeneous molecular dispersion

3

What is the definition of an emulsion?

System of 2 immiscible liquids where one is dispersed as dropletsOil in water, water in oil

4

What is the definition of a suspension?

Solid in water or oil

5

What are 3 advantages of Solution dosage forms?

Homogeneous- No content uniformity issuesGood bioavailabilityEasy to manufacture

6

What are the 6 components of a solution?

Active ingredientSolventBufferPreservativeAntioxidant- Chelating agentFlavor/sweeteners

7

What is the definition of a buffer?

A solution of a weak acid and the salt of its conjugate base

8

What is the function of the weak acid component in a buffer?

It removes the added base (OH-)

9

What is the function of the salt component in the buffer?

It removes the added acid (H+)

10

What is the definition of buffering capacity?

The ability of buffer to resist a change in pH due to addition of acid or base

11

What does C stand for in the buffering capacity equation?

C= Total buffer concentrationC = [HA] + {A-]

12

What are 4 common buffers?

Citric acidacetic acidglycinephosphoric acid

13

What are 2 things to keep in mind when selecting a buffer?

1. Use a pH that provides maximum drug stability2. Minimize irritation by making pH equal to that of the body fluid

14

What are 3 things you can do to minimize irritation when the pH cannot be matched to the surrounding fluid?

1. Minimize buffering capacity2. Reduce volume3. Administer slowly

15

What is the purpose of antimicrobial preservatives?

1. Protects the patient from pathogens2. Maintains the potency and stability of dosage forms

16

What is the mechanism behind antimicrobial preservatives?

Adsorb to the bacterial membrane and disrupt it- often lyse the bacteria or prevent proliforation

17

What are the properties of the bacterial membrane that preservatives use to bind?

The negatively charged surface membrane and the lipophilicity of the membrane allows for hydrophobic interactions

18

Which antimicrobial preservatives use the lipid solubility to bind?

Alcohols, acids, esters

19

Which antimicrobial preservatives use the electostatic interactions to bind?

Quaternary ammonium compounds

20

How much bacterial content is allowed in ampules- injectable solutions?

None, solution must be sterileFor single dose vials no preservative is needed

21

How much bacterial content is allowed in multiple dose vials?

None, must be sterileMay contain up to 10 doses, require preservatives

22

How much bacterial content is allowed in opthalmic solutions?

None, must be sterileMust contain a preservative if packaged in a multiple dose container

23

How much bacterial content is allowed in oral liquids?

Less than 100 pathogens/1 mLNeed preservatives for multiple dose packages

24

How much bacterial content is allowed in oral solids?

Less likely to carry bacteria than liquid formsCan be contaminated with salmonellaCheck raw materials and make sure facility is clean

25

Characteristics of ideal preservatives?

1. Effective in low concentrations against a wide variety of organisms2. Soluble in formulation3. Non toxic4. Stable

26

List 5 pharmaceutical preservatives?

1. Alcohols2. Acids3. Parabens4. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

27

Characteristics of ethanol as a preservative?

Requires a concentration of greater than 15 percentoral products onlycan be lost because it is so volatile

28

Characteristics of Benzyl Alcohol as a preservative?

Local anethetic actionBurning taste- not used orallyWater soluableStable over wide pH rangeHighly used in parenterals

29

Characteristics of acids as preservatives?

Only active in the unionized form - lipid soluable because they have more affinity for the microbial membrane

30

What products are Benzoic acid utilized in?

Oral products