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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (30):
1

Cell wall with lots of peptidoglycan?

Gram positive cell wall

2

Antibiotics that act on the bacterial cell wall?

Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Glycopeptides

3

How are penicillins excreted?

Via the kidneys

4

Are penicillins safe in pregnancy?

Yes

5

Vancomycin and Teicoplanin, what type of antibiotic are these?

Glycopeptides (they act on the bacterial cell wall)

6

How do you give glycopeptides?

Give glycopeptides IV as they are not absorbed when given orally

7

What is clavulanic acid?

Calvulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor

8

What is tazobactam?

Beta-lactamase inhibitor

9

Name some macrolides

Erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin

10

How are macrolides excreted?

Excreted via the liver, biliary tract and into the gut (NOT EXCRETED IN URINE)

11

How is gentamicin administered?

IV

12

What does gentamicin cover?

Gentamicin is active mainly against Gram negative aerobic organisms such as coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

13

Really bad side effects of gentamicin?

Gentamicin has a narrow therapeutic index

CAUSES RENAL FAILURE AND DEAFNESS AND DISTURBANCE OF BALANCE

14

What are tetracyclines good for?

Atypical penumonia organisms
(Treating infections caused by bacteria that do not have a proper bacterial cell wall)

15

How are clindamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines excreted?

Via the liver and biliary system

16

Antibiotics that act on bacterial DNA

Metronidazole
Trimethoprim
Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin)

17

Uses of metronidazole

Metronidazole is used for infection caused by "true anaerobes"
-Bacteroides
-Clostridium

18

How does trimethroprim work?

Inhibits folic acid synthesis
-Has some activity against gram negative and gram positive

19

How is trimethoprim excreted?

Excreted in urine

20

When is trimethoprim safe in pregnancy?

Safe in pregnancy from 4th month onward

21

Which are the only antibiotics that can be given orally to treat pseudomonas infection?

Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin)
-Use of these antibiotics is restricted though

22

Uses of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin?

Ciprofloxacin is used for complicated urinary tract infection

Levofloxacin is used ONLY for severe community acquired pneumonia in penicillin allergic patients

23

General antibiotic side effects

Many cause GI effects such as nausea and diarrhoea. This may result in failure of oral contraception and another method of contraception is usually required

24

Side effect of glycopeptides? (vancomycin)

vancomycin damages kidneys, occasionally causes “red man syndrome” (allergy)

25

Side effect of tetracyclines?

permanent staining of teeth (and bones) in children <12 years

26

Side effect of metronidazole?

Interacts with alcohol

27

Side effects of quinolones?

weakens tendon (→ tendon rupture)
May damage joints in children
May cause seizures (“fits”)

28

Antibiotics that should be avoided in people with penicillin allergy?

Patients with penicillin allergy should not be given penicillins/cephalosporins

29

When is metronidazole safe in pregnancy?

Metronidazole is safe after the first 3 months (like trimethoprim)

30

Which antibiotics should you not give to pregnant women?

You should not give:
-gentamicin
-tetracyclines
-fluoroquinolones