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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (17):
1

Collapsing pulse

Aortic regurgitation

2

Pulse in cardiac tamponade

Paradoxical

(abnormally large decrease in systolic blood pressure and pulse wave amplitude during inspiration)

ALSO occurs in left ventricular compression, constrictive pericarditis or severe asthma

3

Alterans pulse

Severe left ventricular failure

-regular rhythm but with alternating beats which are weak and then strong
-It is found in patients with severe heart failure and suggests a poor prognosis

4

Slow rising pulse

Aortic stenosis

5

Absent pulse

Takayasu's arteritis

-narrowing of major arteries such as the renal, carotid, subclavian etc

6

A 42 year old man with central chest pain. Movement exacerbated the pain and the anterior chest wall is tender

Tietze's disease
This is caused by inflammation around the costosternal junctions

It may be bilateral or unilateral and the chest wall is very tender over the affected area.

7

A 67 year old man industrial worker with left sided chest pain and long term pleural plawues

Mesothelioma

8

An obese 42 year old woman with central chest pain going through to her back, which is aggravated by sitting forward. The pain seems to be worse at night and after large meals

GORD

9

P wave

Atrial depolarisation

10

QRS complex

Ventricular depolarisation

11

T wave

Ventricular repolarisation

12

QT interval

Rough indication of the duration of ventricular systole

13

First heart sound coincides with what on the ECG?

QRS complex

14

When does the 2nd heart sound occur on the ECG?

At the same time as the T wave

15

Causes of narrow pulse pressure (<30mmHg)

Tachycardia
Severe Aortic Stenosis
Constrictive Pericarditis
Pericardial Effusion
Ascites

16

Causes of widened pulse pressure (>40mmHg)

Pathophysiology in Isolated Systolic Hypertension
Suggests reduced large artery vascular compliance
Best Blood Pressure marker for cardiovascular risk
Causes
Isolated Systolic Hypertension
Aortic Regurgitation
Thyrotoxicosis
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Arteriovenous fistula
Beriberi heart
Aortic Coarctation
Anemia
Emotional state

17

Ejection systolic murmurs

Associated with aortic stenosis and are usually harsh, radiating to the neck

Ejection systolic murmurs can occur in severe aortic regurgitation, due to the large stroke volume passing through the aortic valve with each systolic contraction of the left ventricle

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy can also cause an ejection systolic murmur

Aortic sclerosis may produce an ejection systolic murmur

Pulmonary stenosis