Flashcards in Dermatology Formative Deck (79):
Thickened aqueous solution
-semi-solid, containing high
Suspension of medication in water/alcohol/other liquid
Semi-solids, stiff, greasy, difficult to apply, often used in cooling, drying, soothing bandages
-contain finely powdered material
Semi-sold grease/oil, no preservative, less cosmetically attractive, greasy
Semisolid emulsion of oil in water, contains preservative, cosmetically acceptable, non greasy
Examination for herpes simplex
Blister fluid: electron microscopy, viral culture and PCR
Usual cause of cellulitis?
beta haemolytic streptococcus
Diagnosis of cellulitis?
Serologically (so do a blood test and look for antibodies)
Treatment for cellulitis?
Phenoxymethylpenicillin (or erythromycin) and flucloxacillin
Investigation for scabies?
Skin scrapings for microscopy
Investigation for ring worm?
Skin scraping for microscopy and culture, and woods light
Investigation for impetigo?
Swab of lesion sent in bacterial container for microscopy and culture
Thinning of the skin
Dried serum or exudate on the skin
Visible flaking and shredding of surface skin
Partial epidermal loss
(denuded area of skin)
Itchy raised "nettle rash" like swelling due to dermal oedema
Large, flat-topped elevated, palpable lesion
Organism causing boils?
Usually staph aureus
Treatment for boils?
Erythromycin (occasionally incision and drainage)
Organsim causing pitted keratolysis?
-frequently involves the soles of the forefoot and appears as numerous punched out circular lesions
Chronic lesions of lupus vulgaris are at high risk of developing what?
High risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma
How are warts spread?
Warts are spread by direct contact, they are also associated with trauma
Common cutaneous infection of childhood caused by pox virus. Lesions are multiple small (1-3mm) translucent papules which often look like fluid filled vesicles but are infact solid. Individual lesions may have a central depression called a punctum. They exhibit the Kobner phenomenon. They occur at any body site including the genitalia
-rarely require treatment as they spontaneously resolve
Disease of sheep and goats
-caused by pox virus
-1-2 cm reddish papules with a surrounding erythema which usually becomes pustular
-lesions resolve spontaneously after 4-6 weeks
-Occasionally, orf is complicated by erythema multiforme
What can complicate orf?
Erythema multiforme can complicate orf
Asymmetrical scaly patches which show central clearing and an advancing scaly, raised edge
-central clearing is not a universal feature and it is recommended that all asymmetrical scaly lesions should be scraped for fungus
-Ring worm of the face often arises after the use of topical steroids
When does ringworm of the face often arise?
Ringworm of the face often arises after the use of topical steroids
The skin in the toe clefts looks white, macerated and fissured
Tinea pedis (athletes foot)
How is scalp ringworm spread?
Scalp ringworm is spread by close contact and may also be spread indirectly by hairdressers
Clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine
Anti-fungals (e.g. for ringworm)
Intensely itchy rash caused by the mite sarcoptes scabiei
It presents clinically with itchy red papules (or occasionally vesicles and pustules) which can occur anywhere in the skin but rarely on the face
-especially web spaces between fingers and toes
-palms and soles
-around wrists and axillae
-around nipples and umbilicus
Treatment for scabies
Permethrin 5% (tobical sabicide)
-applied and washed off after ten hours
Enhance rehydration of epidermis
-For all dry/scaly conditions esp. eczema
How much emollient do you need to prescribe weekly?
Prescribe 250-500g weekly
Clobetasone Butyrate 0.5%
Betamethasone valerate 0.1%
Clobetasol proprionate 0.05%
Use of topical steroids
Other non-infective inflammatory dermatoses e.g. lichen planus
Keloid scars (usually intralesional)
Quantity of topical steroid needed for whole body application?
Quantity of steroid in 1 fingertip unit?
And how much does this cover?
Covers 2 hand areas
Topical steroid side effects?
Thinning of skin, purpura, stretch marks
May worsen or mask infections
Tachyphylaxis : decrease in response to anti-inflammatory effects
Rebound flare of disease (esp. psoriasis)
(have bacteriostatic/ bactericidal effects)
Anti-septic you could use in acute exudative eczema or pompholyx?
Potassium permanganate rinse/soak/bath
Topical antibiotics for acne?
Clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline
Topical antibiotics for rosacea?
Topical antibiotics for impetigo?
Mupirocin, fusidic acid
Type of anti-viral required for eczema herpeticum?
Oral anti-viral needed for eczema herpeticum
Type of medication needed for candidi and pityrasis vesicolour?
Medication needed for dermatophytes (ringworm)
-Menthol is added to calamine and other lotions/creams to impart cooling senstation
Capsaicin is from red chilli peppers --> depletes substance P at nerve endings and reduces neurotransmission, effect gradually builds
Camphor/phenol --> for pruritis ani
When might you use camphor/phenol?
For pruritis ani
This is from red chilli peppers, depletes substance P at nerve endings and reduces neurotransmission, effect gradually build
Give an example of a keratolytic
Used to soften keratin:
Hyperkeratotic eczema & psoriasis
Corns and calluses
To remove keratin plaques in scalp
e.g. salicylic acid 10-40%
What is podophyllin used for?
Treatment of warts?
Keratolytics e.g.Salicylic acid
Cryotherapy (usually liquid nitrogen)
Podophyllin (genital warts)
Topical psoriasis treatment?
Emollients and choice of:
Vitamin D analogue
Pros and cons of vitamin D analogues?
Clean, no smell
Easy to apply
BUT can be irritant
Use limited to ?100g weekly
Side effects of dithranol
Difficult to use and irritant and stains normal skin
"dithranol staining and burning"
Treatments for scalp psoriasis
Greasy ointments to soften scale
Steroids in alcohol base
Vitamin D analogues
Psoriasis in axilla
Topical steroids for face, flexures and groin/genitals
Immune response modulator
Enhances innate & cell-mediated immunity
Anti-viral, anti-tumour effects
-suppress lymphocyte activation
-topical treatment of atopic eczema, especially face, children
When would you use calcinuerin inhibitors?
Topical treatment of atopic eczema, especially face, children
-does not cause cutaneous atrophy
-may cause burning sensation on application(?risk of cutaneous infections ?? risk of skin cancer?)
Side effects of topical therapies?
Burning or irritation
Contact allergic dermatitis
UVA and UVB, which is responsible for direct/indirect DNA damage
UVA: indirect damage
UVB: direct damage
Being female and having malignant melanoma?
Improve the prognosis
Adverse prognostic factors for malignant melanoma
Where do you get arterial ulcers?
Where do you get venous ulcers?
Medial or lateral malleolus
What is the breslow thickness?
Depth from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest melanoma cell
Made of keratin
-most common lesions are seborrhoeic keratoses