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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (30):
1

How are most antibiotics cleared by the body?

renally excreted

2

what are some drugs that are not handled by the kidney and thus metabolized by the liver?

clindamycin
erythromycin
chloramphenicol
metronidazole
nafcillin

3

What is the MOA of penicillins?

cell wall synthesis inhibitors (bind to and inhibit PBP)

4

what are some mechanisms of resistance to penicillin?

beta-lacatamase sensitive
alteration in the PBP site
changes in the cell mb (change in porin function)

5

which type of penicillin is available only as an oral preparation?

penicillin V

6

What drug interacts with penicillin and will increase serum concentrations of it?

probenecid

7

What is the DOC for surgical prophylaxis?

Cefazolin (Ancef) 2g IV one hour before surgery

8

What is the DOC for N. gonorrhea coverage?

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
250 mg IM injection

9

What is the most active cephalosporin against P. aeruginosa?

Ceftazidime (Fortaz)

10

Why is Imipenem always combined with Cilastatin?

Imipenem is destroyed in the kidney; Cilastatin inhibits renal enzymes from degrading the imipenem

11

What does the Cockroft and Gault formula measure?

creatinine clearance

12

What is the Cockroft and Gault formula?

creatinine clearance = (140-age) x (weight in kg)/ (serum Cr x 72)
*if women, multiply by 0.85

13

you have to draw peaks & troughs when giving what type of antibiotics?

aminoglycosides

14

which (peak or trough) is dose-dependent? which is time-dependent?

peak- is dose dependent
trough- is time dependent

15

if peak is high and trough is normal, what would you do?

decrease the dose

16

if peak is normal and trough is low, what would you do?

decrease the time between doses

17

Which drugs are good against anaerobes?

Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Clindamycin (Cleocin)

18

what AE is associated with vancomycin? how would you avoid this

Red Man syndrome- give it over 45-60 min to prevent

19

What 3 aminoglycosides have indications for LE use?

gentamicin
tobramycin
amikacin

20

Which aminoglycoside has the best activity against Serratia?

Gentamicin

21

Which aminoglycoside is the most effective against P. aeruginosa?

tobramycin

22

Which aminoglycoside is used for infection caused by Gram (-) organisms resistant to gentamicin and tobramycin?

amikacin

23

what is the spectrum of activity of aminoglycisdes?

aerobic Gram (-) bacteria
*is effective against staph and some strep but there are other drugs that are safer to use

24

What are some of the feared side effects of aminoglycosides?

nephrotoxicity- reversible
otoxoticity- IRREVERSIBLE
neuromuscular blockade

25

what is the spectrum of activity of Vancomycin?

Gram (+) bacteria only

26

name some examples of Macrolides.

Erythromycin
Clarithromycin
Azithromycin

27

What are the most frequently implicated organisms in cellulitis infections?

Staph aureus
Group A strep (Strep pyogenes)

28

What are some oral alternatives used to treat cellulitis?

(empiric Gram + coverage)
Cephalosporin (Cephalexin)
Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid)
Clindamycin

29

What is tPA aka ?

alteplase

30

What is the treatment for erythrasma?

oral erythromycin 1g/day