Pot Pourri Flashcards Preview

Pimp Questions > Pot Pourri > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pot Pourri Deck (69)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the 4 AO principles of internal fixation?

1. anatomic reduction
2. stable internal fixation
3. preservation of blood supply
4. early, active, pain-free ROM

2

Where does the blood supply to the bone cone from?

periosteum- supplies outer 1/3 of cortical bone
endosteal or medullary vessels (nutrient artery)- supply inner 2/3 of cortical bone

3

which type of healing heals with callus formation?

secondary healing (or indirect healing)

4

what is primary (or direct) healing?

bypasses callus formation; occurs with absolute stability ; utilizes cutting cones

5

what are the differences in bone healing between cortical and cancellous bone?

cortical- undergoes secondary healing (w/ callus formation)
cancellous- no significant callus formation due to tremendous angiogenic potential of trabecular bone

6

What is AO technique- lag screw by technique?

overdrill, underdrill, countersink, measure

7

Which step of AO technique does lag screw by design take out?

overdrill

8

Where is the apex of deformity in metatarsus adductus?

Lisfranc's joint (tarsometatarsal joint)

9

Describe the levels of deformity in the skewfoot.

transverse plane adduction
frontal plane inversion
rearfoot eversion

10

What are the stages of Eichenholtz for charcot neuroarthropthy?

stage 0- at risk for Charcot (e.g. neuropathic diabetic w/ acute sprain or fx)
stage 1- development/fragmentation (red, hot swollen foot; xray shows multiple fractures and subluxation)
stage 2- coalescence (absorption of fine debris; sclerosis of bone ends)
stage 3- reconstruction/consolidation (remodeling of bone)

11

Describe the stages of Brodsky classification.

Type 1 (most common)- Lisfranc's (tarsometatarsal) joint
Type 2- Chopart's/ STJ
Type 3a- ankle
Type 3b- calcaneus
Type 4- multiple regions
Type 5- forefoot

12

What are the 3 currently FDA approved meds for treating diabetic foot infection?

1. Zyvox (LInezolid)
2. Zosyn (Piperacillin/tazobactam)
3. Invanz (Ertapenem)

13

Give a verbal description of the types of Achilles rupture repairs.

Krakow- interlocking
Bunnell- crosses
Kessel- a box

14

What is Burrow's triangle?

a wedge of skin and subcutaneous fat excised, usually at the end of a closed wound and created by flap transfer or advancement, so that a smooth repair can be obtained.

15

What is Virchow's triad?

1. stasis
2. endothelial damage
3. hypercoagulability
(all are factors predisposing to a thrombus)

16

trade name for bupivicaine?

Exparel , Marcaine, Sensoricarine

17

What is Exparel?

is basically a fat-soluble type of lidocaine (liposome injectable suspension)

18

How are amides cleared? esters?

amides- cleared by the liver
esters- in the blood by cholinesterases

19

what is the correct order of correction for clubfoot using the Ponsetti casting method?

1. cavus
2. adduction
3. equinus
(*mnemonic- CAVE)

20

what are the main causes of graft failure?

hematoma
seroma
infection
shearing forces
*BONUS- how would you prevent these from happening?
fenestration- prevents hematoma/seroma
bolster dressing- helps with graft adhesion and prevents shearing forces

21

What angles are used to evaluate a Calc fracture? how do they change in a calcaneal fracture?

Bohler's angle (normal 25-40)- decreases w/ a calc fx
Critical angle of gissane (normal- 120-145)- increases w/ a calc fx

22

What is the max. dose of lidocaine? (w/ epi and w/o)?

w/o epi: 4.5mg/kg or up to 300mg
w/ epi: 7mg/kg or up to 500mg

23

What is the max. dose of marcaine? (w/ epi and w/o)?

w/o epi: 2.5mg/kg or up to 175 mg
w/ epi: 3.2mg/ kg or up to 225mg

24

What is a pantalar fusion?

fusion of the tibiotalar, subtalar, talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints

25

What is a tibiotalar fusion called?

Blair fusion

26

What is the ankle fusion technique that is indicated in a child to preserve the potential for growth of the distal tibia and fibular physis?

distraction-compression fusion

27

What is the double calcaneal osteotomy?

Evans with a medial calcaneal slide
(indicated for a RF valgus and FF abudction)

28

What is the order in which the effects of local anesthetics are felt?

1. loss of pain and temp sensation
2. loss of proprioception
3. loss of touch and pressure sensation
4. motor paralysis

29

What properties are provided by a bone graft?

osteogenesis
osteoconduction
osteoinduction

30

What does osteoconduction refer to?

bone graft or implant's ability to provide a structural framework on which host cells reconstitute
*is a scaffold that enables ingrowth of vessels, osteoblasts, and stem cells so that union occurs with the host skeleton