Antibiotics: General Principles Flashcards Preview

POD Exam II > Antibiotics: General Principles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics: General Principles Deck (35):
1

Gram positive bacteria (3):

- Staphylococcus
- Streptococcus
- Enterococcus

2

Gram negative "piddly" bacteria (7):

- Haemophilus
- Morexella
- Morganella
- Shigella
- Salmonella
- Providencia
- Neisseria

3

Gram negative "fence" bacteria (3):

PEK
- Proteus
- Eschericia coli
- Klebsiella

4

Gram negative "SPACE" bacteria (5):

- Serratia
- Pseudomonas
- Acinetobacter
- Citrobacter
- Enterobacter

5

Atypical bacteria (3):

CML
- Chlamydia
- Mycoplasma
- Legionella

6

Anaerobic bacteria (3):

- Peptostreptococcus
- Bacteroides
- Clostridium

7

Bactericidal:

Lethal to susceptible microorganisms.

8

Bacteriostatic:

Inhibitory to growth of susceptible microorganisms.

9

Resistant microorganism:

Concentration of drug required to inhibit or kill a microorganism cannot be achieved safely.

10

Postantibiotic effect:

PAE
- Persistent effect of an antimicrobial on bacterial growth following brief exposure of organisms to a drug.
- Aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones.

11

Concentration dependent killing:

Killing dependent on peak concentration. Optimal kill occurs when concentration exceeds 10x MIC.
- Quinolones and aminoglycosides.

12

Time dependent killing:

Killing is dependent on amount of time the concentration stays above the MIC (40-50% of the time).
- Beta-lactam antibiotics.

13

MOA of Penicillins/cephalosporins/carbapenems/aztreonam:

Prevents cross-linking of peptidoglycan strands by inhibiting transpeptidases.

14

MOA of Vancomycin:

Inhibits peptidoglycan synthetase and polymerization of linear peptide.

15

MOA of aminoglycosides:

Inhibits 30 S ribosome; causes misreading of mRNA.

16

MOA of chloramphenicol:

Inhibits peptidyl transferase and peptide band formation.

17

MOA of erythromycin, clindamycin and lincomycin:

Inhibits 50 S ribosome.

18

MOA of tetracyclines:

Inhibits binding of aminoacyl tRNA to ribosome; 30 S ribosome.

19

Polymixin B and colistin:

Interference with cell membrane function.
- Cationic detergent.

20

Rifampin:

Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

21

Fluoroquinolones:

Interferes with supercoiling of DNA by action on DNA gyrase.

22

Isoniazid and ethambutol:

Inhibits lipid synthesis.

23

Sulfonomides and trimethoprim:

Prevents synthesis of folic acid.

24

Mechanisms of resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins (3):

- Beta-lactamases.
- PBP changes.
- Porin channel changes.

25

Mechanism of resistance to aminoglycosides:

Enzyme inactivating.

26

Mechanism of resistance to macrolides:

- Methyltransferases that alter drug binding sites on 50 S ribosomal subunit.

27

Mechanism of resistance to tetracyclines:

Transport systems that pump drugs out of the cell.

28

Mechanisms of resistance to sulfonamides (2):

- Increased PABA formation.
- Target enzyme sensitivity.

29

Mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones (2):

- Target enzyme changes.
- Drug efflux.

30

SPACE bug coverage:

Box and One:
- One of:
- PNC, cephalosporin, carbapenem, (aztreonam).
- One of:
- Fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides
- Ace In The Hole: aztreonam

31

SPACE bug PCN's (2):

- Piperacillin
- Ticarcillin

32

SPACE bug cephalosporins (2):

- Ceftazadime
- Cefepime

33

SPACE bug carbapenems (2):

- Imipenem
- Meropenem

34

SPACE bug aminoglycosides (2):

- Gentamicin
- Tobramycin

35

SPACE bug fluoroquinolones (2):

- Ciprofloxacin
- Levofloxacin