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MD2002 > Antibodies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibodies Deck (30):
1

Where do B-cells originate from?

bone marrow

2

What are naive B-cells?

B-cells that have not met antigen and circulate from blood into peripheral lymphoid tissues, the main site of antigen encounter

3

What happens to germinal centres in the lymph nodes?

they grow, during immune response, due to cell proliferation

4

In the spleen, how do the antigens enter?

in the blood

5

Why is immune response greater and faster after initial exposure?

some B-cells don't die and instead 'turn off' and become memory T-cells and lie dormant until needed

6

What are the key features of B-cells?

+ antigen specific
+ have a "memory"

7

What are the advantages of the B-cells secondary memory response?

+ faster
+ can produce more antibody
+ doesn't prevent a response to another antigen

8

What are the separate functions of antibodies?

1. to bind the pathogen that caused its production

2. recruit other cells and molecules that will lead to clearance/destruction of pathogen

9

What are the two parts that make up an antibody?

binding and activation parts

10

What is junctional diversity?

DNA sequence variations introduced by the improper joining of gene segments during the process of V(D)J recombination

11

Where does junctional diversity occur?

only in B-cells

12

What are the 4 ways antibody diversity is created?

1. rearranging multiple gene segments
2. junctional diversity
3. different combinations of H and L chains
4. somatic hypermutation

13

What is affinity maturation?

when cells with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response are selected to expand and secrete antibody

14

What are the 5 classes of antibody?

+ IgG
+ IgM
+ IgD
+ IgA
+ IgE

15

what type of multimer can IgM be secreted as?

pentamer - involves additional J chain

16

what type of multimer can IgA be secreted as?

dimer - involves additional J chain

17

what are the main Ab isotypes in plasma?

IgG and IgM

18

what are the main Ab isotypes in extracellular fluid?

IgG and monomeric IgA

19

where does dimeric IgA predominate?

secretions across epithelia, including breast milk

20

how does a foetus receive IgG?

transplacental transfer

21

where is IgE found mostly?

near to epithelial surfaces, especially gut, lungs and skin

22

what antibody does a foetus receive via transplacental transfer?

IgG

23

what is ADCC?

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

24

what is a major cause of glomerulonephritis?

high levels of Ab-Ag complexes

25

what is infliximab?

anti-tumour necrosis factor (inflammatory mediator)

26

what is infliximab used to treat?

- rheumatoid arthritis
- ankylosing spondylitis
- psoriasis
- inflammatory bowel diseases

27

what is herceptin?

anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)

28

what is herceptin used for?

blocking growth of and destroying breast tumour cells that express high levels of HER2

29

what is gleevac?

anti-tyrosine kinase

30

what is gleevac effective against?

chronic myeloid leukaemia

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