Bloodborne Pathogens Flashcards Preview

MD2002 > Bloodborne Pathogens > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bloodborne Pathogens Deck (33):
1

What are the viral features of HIV?

+ spherical
+ enveloped
+ RNA
+ retrovirus

2

What are the steps involved in HIV progression to AIDS?

1. exposure to HIV
2. seroconversion
3. asymptomatic
4. persistent generalised lymphadenopathy
5. AIDS related clinical features
6. AIDS

3

What is the treatment for AIDS?

+ NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)

+ NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)

+ PIs (protease inhibitors)

4

What are the normal treatment combinations for HIV?

+ 1 NRTI and 1 PI
+ 2 NRTIs and 1 NNRTI

5

How is viral load measured?

Quantitative NAAT

6

How is HIV transmitted?

+ via blood/blood products/contaminated needles
+ sexually
+ perinatally

7

Which type of HIV is the most common?

HIV-1

8

What are the viral features of HBV?

+ hepadnavirus
+ double-stranded DNA
+ enveloped

9

What is HBsAg?

surface antigen

10

What does HBsAg indicate?

infectivity

11

What is HBcAg?

core antigen

12

When does HBcAg appear?

Early in infection

13

What is HBeAg?

pre-core antigen

14

What does HBeAg indicate?

high transmissibility

15

What does anti-HBsAg provide?

immunity (appears late)

16

How is HBV transmitted?

+ blood/blood products
+ contaminated needles and equipment
+ association with tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture
+ sexual intercourse

17

What are the stages of HBV infection?

+ long incubation period - up to 6 months
+ development of acute hepatitis
+ fulminant disease carries 1-2% mortality rate
+ 50% patients develop chronic active hepatitis

18

What is icterus?

jaundice

19

What are the clinical features of the pre-icteric stage of HBV?

+ malaise
+ anorexia
+ nausea
+ pain in upper right quadrant (tender liver)

20

What are the clinical features of the icteric stage of HBV?

+ jaundice
+ dark urine (bilirubin)

21

What is jaundice and where does it affect?

Yellow pigmentation affecting the skin, sclerae and other mucous membranes

22

What causes jaundice?

Hyperbilirubemia

23

What is the treatment for HBV?

+ pegylated interferon (peginterferon): sustaining suppression of viral replication

+ nucleoside analogues

24

What are methods of HBV prevention?

+ HBsAg vaccine
+ HBV immunoglobin
+ Blood screening
+ Needle exchange programmes

25

What are the viral features of HCV?

+ flavivirus
+ single-stranded RNA
+ enveloped
+ replicated in hepatocytes
+ destroys liver cells
+ virus cannot be cultured

26

How is HCV transmitted?

+ blood and blood products
+ tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture
+ haemodialysis
+ sexual/vertical transmission

27

What are clinical features of HCV?

+ usually asymptomatic
+ fatigue
+ nausea
+ weight loss

28

What can occasionally develop in patients with HCV?

+ cirrhosis
+ hepatocellular carcinoma

29

What is the treatment for HCV?

NO VACCINE YET
+ ribavirin and pegylated interferon alpha
+ sofosbivur (nucleotide analogue)

30

What are the 5 species of plasmodium that cause malaria?

+ P. falciparum
+ P. ovale
+ P. knowlesi
+ P. vivax
+ P. malariae

31

What are the main clinical features of malaria?

+ fever
+ flu-like symptoms
+ P. falciparum affects every organ - wide range of complications:
- cerebral malaria
- circulatory shock
- hepatitis

32

Infection of which plasmodium can rapidly progress to death?

P. falciparum

33

What is the treatment for malaria?

+ chemotherapy: kills blood stages of parasite
+ combo therapy is normal

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