Flashcards in Bloodborne Pathogens Deck (33):
What are the viral features of HIV?
What are the steps involved in HIV progression to AIDS?
1. exposure to HIV
4. persistent generalised lymphadenopathy
5. AIDS related clinical features
What is the treatment for AIDS?
+ NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)
+ NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)
+ PIs (protease inhibitors)
What are the normal treatment combinations for HIV?
+ 1 NRTI and 1 PI
+ 2 NRTIs and 1 NNRTI
How is viral load measured?
How is HIV transmitted?
+ via blood/blood products/contaminated needles
Which type of HIV is the most common?
What are the viral features of HBV?
+ double-stranded DNA
What is HBsAg?
What does HBsAg indicate?
What is HBcAg?
When does HBcAg appear?
Early in infection
What is HBeAg?
What does HBeAg indicate?
What does anti-HBsAg provide?
immunity (appears late)
How is HBV transmitted?
+ blood/blood products
+ contaminated needles and equipment
+ association with tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture
+ sexual intercourse
What are the stages of HBV infection?
+ long incubation period - up to 6 months
+ development of acute hepatitis
+ fulminant disease carries 1-2% mortality rate
+ 50% patients develop chronic active hepatitis
What is icterus?
What are the clinical features of the pre-icteric stage of HBV?
+ pain in upper right quadrant (tender liver)
What are the clinical features of the icteric stage of HBV?
+ dark urine (bilirubin)
What is jaundice and where does it affect?
Yellow pigmentation affecting the skin, sclerae and other mucous membranes
What causes jaundice?
What is the treatment for HBV?
+ pegylated interferon (peginterferon): sustaining suppression of viral replication
+ nucleoside analogues
What are methods of HBV prevention?
+ HBsAg vaccine
+ HBV immunoglobin
+ Blood screening
+ Needle exchange programmes
What are the viral features of HCV?
+ single-stranded RNA
+ replicated in hepatocytes
+ destroys liver cells
+ virus cannot be cultured
How is HCV transmitted?
+ blood and blood products
+ tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture
+ sexual/vertical transmission
What are clinical features of HCV?
+ usually asymptomatic
+ weight loss
What can occasionally develop in patients with HCV?
+ hepatocellular carcinoma
What is the treatment for HCV?
NO VACCINE YET
+ ribavirin and pegylated interferon alpha
+ sofosbivur (nucleotide analogue)
What are the 5 species of plasmodium that cause malaria?
+ P. falciparum
+ P. ovale
+ P. knowlesi
+ P. vivax
+ P. malariae
What are the main clinical features of malaria?
+ flu-like symptoms
+ P. falciparum affects every organ - wide range of complications:
- cerebral malaria
- circulatory shock
Infection of which plasmodium can rapidly progress to death?