Tumour Pathology Flashcards Preview

MD2002 > Tumour Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (39):
1

what are the supporting structures of tumour cells?

+ neoplastic cells
+ stroma (connective tissue, blood vessels, inflammatory cell)

2

what is meant by autonomous?

response to physiological stimuli is lost or abnormal, allowing unregulated growth

3

what cancer has the highest incidence, and the lowest in males in the uk?

prostate and kidney

4

what cancer has the highest incidence, and the lowest in females in the uk?

breast and melanoma

5

what are key features of cancerous cells?

+ self-sifficiency in growth signals
+ insensitivity to anti-growth signals
+ evading apoptosis
+ sustained angiogenesis
+ tissue invasion and metastasis
+ limitless replicative potential

6

what is the timeline of cancer?

1. initiation/promotion
2. growth
3. diagnosis + excision
4. cure/relapse/metastasis/death

7

what are the features of a benign tumour?

+ well circumscribed
+ slow growth
+ no necrosis
+ non-invasive
+ no metastasis

8

what are the features of a malignant tumour?

+ poorly circumscribed
+ rapid growth
+ often necrotic
+ invasive
+ metastasis

9

what is the clinical relevance of a benign tumour?

+ does not invade
+ does not metastasise

10

what is the clinical relevance of a malignant tumour?

+ invades
+ metastisises

11

what are clinical effects of benign tumours?

+ do not invade or metastasise
+ not always clinically benign

12

what are ways benign tumours are not always clinically benign?

+ space occupying effects
+ haemorrhage
+ hormone production

13

what can be caused by space occupying effects?

+ obstruction
+ epilepsy
+ conduction abnormalities

14

what is a malignant tumour?

a colony of malignant cells established at a point distant from the original tumour

15

how do malignant tumours spread?

+ directly invade locally
+ via lymphatics
+ via bloodstream (haematological)
+ through body cavities (transcoelomic)

16

where do prostate tumours metastasise to?

bone

17

where do lung tumours metastasise to?

brain, adrenals

18

where do breast tumours metastasise to?

lung, liver, bone, brain

19

where do ovarian tumours metastasise to?

peritoneal cavity

20

what are macroscopic features of benign tumours?

+ intacts surface
+ exophytic growth
+ homogeneous cut surface
+ circumscribed or encapsulated edge

21

what are macroscopic features of malignant tumours?

+ heterogeneous cut surface due to necrosis
+ ulcerated surface
+ endophytic growth
+ vascular permeation
+ irregular infiltrative edge

22

what are microscopic features of benign tumours?

+ resemble tissue of origin
+ well circumscribed
+ well differentiated
+ minimal nuclear pleomorphism
+ mitotic figures normal
+ no necrosis

23

what are features of microscopic features of malignant tumours?

+ variable resemblance
+ poorly circumscribed
+ variable differentiation
+ variable pleomorphism may be anaplastic
+ mitotic figures abnormal
+ necrotic

24

what are cytological features of malignancy?

+ high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio
+ nuclear hyperchromasia
+ nuclear pleomorphism
+ abnormal chromatin structure
+ abnormal mitotic figures

25

what is histogenic classification?

grading based on degree of resemblance of tissue to origin (differentiation)

26

what does grade broadly correlate with?

clinical behaviour of tumour

27

what is the definition of a grade I malignant neoplasm?

well differentiated

28

what is the definition of a grade II malignant neoplasm?

moderately differentiated

29

what is the definition of a grade III malignant neoplasm?

poorly differentiated

30

what is the definition of a grade IV malignant neoplasm?

nearly anaplastic

31

what are the stages of bone metastases mechanism?

> primary malignant neoplasm
> new vessel formation
> invasion of vessel
> embolism
> arrest in distant capillary bed in bone
> adherence
> extravasation
> response to microenvironment
> tumour cell proliferation
> bone metastases

32

where do tumours of the bowel spread to?

liver, lymph nodes, peritoneum

33

what are the different shapes/formations of tumours?

+ sessile
+ pedunculated polyp
+ papillary
+ fungating
+ ulcerated
+ annular

34

what are sessile tumours like?

attached directly by a broad base

35

what are pedunculated polyp tumours like?

polyp: abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane
pedunculated: if attached to surface by narrow elongated stalk

36

what are papillary tumours like?

finger-like projections

37

what are fungating tumours like?

fungus like in appearance and growth rate

38

what are ulcerated tumours like?

eroding away the skin or mucous membrane

39

what are annular tumours like?

ring-like in structure

Decks in MD2002 Class (85):