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Flashcards in Antiinflammatory Drugs & Immunologic Agents Deck (43):
1

amount of granular WBC responsible for much of the body's protection against infection...dosing of G-CSF depends on the calculation of this

Absolute Neutrophil County (ANC)

2

occurs as a part of the human immune response, which is activated when a pathogen invades the body (EX: already having a cold)

Active Immunity

3

occurs from exposure to an antigen or from passive injection of immunoglobulins (EX: vaccine)

Acquired Immunity

4

a serious, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction

Anaphylaxis

5

infection fighting cells, also called immunoglobulins, released when the body recognizes a pathogen

Antibodies

6

small amount of a virus or bacteria that is capable of producing an immune response introduced to the body through vaccination

Antigen

7

group of drugs used to treat HIV including referse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, entry (fusion) inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists & integrase inhibitors

Antiretroviral Medications

8

live, weakened microorganisms

Attenuated Viruses

9

cells counted in lab tests to determine HIV treatment...stable reflection of the immune system used in conjunction with the absolute count to monitor health status and response to medication therapy

CD4+ T cells

10

proteins that stimulate or regulate the growth, maturation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells...manufactured through recombinant DNA techniques

Colony-Stimulating Factors

11

newer vaccines requiring a protein or toxoid from an unrelated organism to link the outer coat of the disease-causing microorganism...the linkage creates a substance that can be recognized by the immature immune system of a young infants (EX: flu type B)

Conjugate Vaccine

12

inactivated toxins...the harmful disease-causing substance produced by some microorganisms

Toxoid

13

glycoprotein produced by the kidney that stimulates RBC production in response to hypoxia (decreased O2 to body tissues

Erythropoietin (EPO)

14

drug that stimulates erythropoietins (EPOs)

Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agent

15

inflammatory condition that attacks joints, tendons and other tissues characterized by a uric acid metabolism disorder and defect in purine metabolism which results in an increase in urates and accumulation of uric acid or an ineffective uric acid clearance by the kidneys

Gout

16

current treatment recommendation for HIV that is a combination antiretroviral therapy requiring the use of at least two, maybe three active drugs from two or more classes

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

17

a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used as cancer suppressing agents (EX: Imuran, Cytoxan, methotrexate)

Immunosuppressives

18

a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used as interleukin receptor agonists (IL-1) (EX: Kineret) and tumor necrosis factor blockers (TNF) (EX: Enbrel, Remicade, Humira, Arava, Xeljanz)

Immunomodulators

19

family of naturally occuring proteins within the immune system: alpha, beta and gamma...all three can be manufactured using recombinant DNA technology...replication of viral DNA

Interferons (IFNs)

20

group of proteins produced by the body's WBC- the lymphocytes...sometimes called lymphokines and found to have antitumor activities (Proleukin)

Interleukins

21

another name for Interleukins

Lymphokines

22

suppression of bone marrow activity

Myelosuppression

23

active immunity which is genetically determined (EX: dogs immune to measles)

Natural Immunity

24

occurs when an individual received antibodies against a particular pathogen from another source (EX: newborns receive immunity from mother)

Passive Immunity

25

chemical mediators that are released during the inflammatory process which vasodilate, relax smooth muscle, increase capillary permeability, and sensitize nerve cells to pain

Prostaglandins

26

HIV enzyme that cuts the long chains of HIV proteins into smaller individual proteins

Protease

27

drugs that inhibit (in combination with others) the activity of protease, resulting in formation and release of immature, defective and noninfectious HIV particles (EX: Kaletra, Reyataz, Lexiva, Aptivus, Prezista, Invirase, Crixivan, Norvir, Viracept

Protease Inhibitors (PIs)

28

vaccine that involves the insertion of some of the genetic material of a pathogen into another cell or organism, where the antigen is then produced in massive quantities...then, those antigens are used as a vaccine in place of the whole pathogen (EX: Hep B)

Recombinant Subunit Vaccine

29

decreased number of thrombocytes in the blood occuring in cancer patients as a side effect to Interferon therapy

Thrombocytopenia

30

HIV enzyme that converts single-stranded HIV RNA to double-stranded HIV DNA

Reverse Transcriptase (RT)

31

drugs that are divided into nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NRTI) (interfere with HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase inhibiting the viral replication) and non-nucleoside analogues (NNRTI) (prevent viral replication by competing with binding of the reverse transcriptase enzyme at the active site)

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

32

acquisition of detectable levels of antibodies in the bloodstream

Seroconversion

33

anti-gout drugs that increase the rate of uric acid excretion by inhibiting its reabsorption...used for chronic gout NOT acute attacks

Uricosurics

34

a plasma HIV RNA quantitative assay

Viral Load (VL) Test

35

institution specific service available to all healthcare employees to prophylatically vaccinate if exposed to HIV

Postexposure Prophylaxis

36

Priority Nursing Interventions for Antietrovial Therapy

(1) Monitor lab studies for decreasing CD4 counts and/or rising viral load (2) Explain how HIV damages the immune system (3) Emphasize protective precautions to prevent exposure to infections (4) Advise patient about ways to avoid URI & flu (5) Provide info to pregnant women about reducing risk of HIV transmission to child (6) Advise patient certain OTC products & herbs can interact with drugs

37

Currently Available Vaccines

Adenovirus, Anthrax, Cholera, Diptheria, Flu Type B, Hep A & B, HPV, Flu, Japanese Encephalitis, Lyme Dx, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Meningitis, Pneumonia, Polio, Rabies, Tetanus, TB, Typhoid, Varicella, Yellow Fever, Zoster

38

Priority Nursing Interventions for Vaccines

(1) Assess for allergies, recent illness, people in household (2) Record manufacturer, lot # & exp. date

39

Functions of Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs)

(1) Enhance host immunologic functions (2) Destroy/interfere with tumor activity (3) Promote differentiation of stem cells

40

Patient Populations Benefiting from BRMs

cancer patients, multiple sclerosis patients, chronic granulamatous disease patients

41

Major Side Effects of Biologic Response Modifiers

flu-like syndrome, N/V/D, reversible neurological symptoms, depression

42

Priority Nursing Interventions for BRMs

(1) Monitor temp at onset of chills (2) Push fluids (2 L/day) (3) Encourage patient to rest when tired (4) Administer at bedtime (5) Instruct women to use contraceptives during therapy (6) Explain that herbal products are not recommended

43

Ususal Side Effects of Vaccines

pain, redness and swelling at injection site