Ch. 1, 2 & 4 - Drug Action, Interaction, Regulation Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Ch. 1, 2 & 4 - Drug Action, Interaction, Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1, 2 & 4 - Drug Action, Interaction, Regulation Deck (230)
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Pharmaceutical Phase

Drug becomes a solution through disintegration & dissolution in order to cross biologic membrane

1

Dissolution

Dissolving of smaller particles in GI fluid before absorption

2

Disintegration

Breakdown of tablet into smaller particles

3

Pharmacokinetics

Process of drug movement to achieve drug action

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Absorption

Movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids

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Absorption

Movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids...the primary factor affecting drug bioavailability...

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Active Absorption

Type of absorption that requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move drug against concentration gradient Requires energy

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Pinocytosis

Type of absorption by which cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles

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First Pass Effect

Process by which the drug passes to the liver first AKA Hepatic First Pass

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Bioavailability

Subcategory of absorption Percentage of the drug dose that reaches systemic circulation

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Protein Binding Effect

A portion of a drug is bound to protein making it inactive & not available to receptors

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Distribution

Process by which a drug becomes available to body fluids & tissues...influenced by blood flow, drug's affinity to tissue & the protein binding effect...many drugs travel in blood stream via proteins (albumin, globulins)

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Free Drug

A portion of a drug that remains unbound to protein making it active & able to cause a pharmacological response

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Half life

Time is takes for half of the drug concentration to be eliminated

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Metabolism

Process by which the body inactivates drugs or biotransforms drugs...liver is primary site for this

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Excretion

Process by which the body eliminates drugs Main route is the kidneys (urine)

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Pharmacodynamics

The study of the way drugs affect the body

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Dose Response

Relationship between minimal versus the maximal amount of drug dose needed to produce result

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Maximal Efficacy

Maximum drug effect

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Peak of Action

Occurs when drug reaches it's highest blood or plasma concentration

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Onset of Action

Time it takes to reach minimum effective concentration (MEC) after drug is administered...the period of time between drug administration and the first indication the drug was effective

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Duration of Action

Length of time the drug has a pharmacological effect

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Time Response Curve

Chart that evaluates the 3 parameters of drug action: onset, peak & duration

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Receptor Theory

The activity of many drugs is determined by the ability of the drug to bind to a specific receptor The better it fits at the receptor site, the more biologically active the drug is

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Kinase-Linked Receptors

Ligand-binding domain for drug binding is on cell surface Drug activates enzyme inside cell

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Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

Channel spans the cell membrane & opens allowing for flow of ions (primarily sodium & calcium)

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G Protein-Coupled Receptor Systems

Three components: the receptor, G protein that binds with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) & the effector (enzyme or ion channel)

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Ligand-Binding Domain

Site on the receptor at which the drug binds

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Nuclear Receptors

Receptors found in cell nucleus Activation through transcription factors is prolonged

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Agonists

Drugs that produce response