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Flashcards in Drugs for Neurologic Disorders Deck (44):
1

drugs used for epileptic seizures; "antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)"

Anticonvulsants

2

seizure characterized by sustained muscle contraction

Tonic Seizure

3

seizure characterized by dysrythmic muscle contraction

Clonic Seizure

4

a diagnostic test used to diagnose epilepsy; records abnormal electric discharges of the cerebral cortex

electroencephalogram (EEG)

5

overgrowth of the gum tissues or reddened gums that bleed easily

gingival hyperplasia

6

the most common form of seizure in which the muscles contract or tighten in a spasm lasting 3-5 seconds then start dysrythmic contractions or jerkiness of limbs for 2-4 minutes

Grand Mal Seizure

7

a rapid succession of epileptic seizures

Status Epilepticus

8

brief loss of consciousness lasting less than 10 seconds with fewer than 3 spikes on the EEG ; usually occurs in children

Petit Mal Seizure

9

medication used to treat Alzheimer's disease symptoms: tacrine, donezepril, rivastigmine, & galantamine

Acetylcholinesterase (AChe) Inhibitor

10

slow movement

Bradykinesia

11

drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors

Dopamine Agonists

12

impaired voluntary movement

Dyskinesia

13

involuntary abnormal movement

Dystonic Movement

14

disease marked by involuntary tremors of the limbs, rigidity of the muscles & slowness of movement; gradual onset generally affecting persons over 50 years of age

Parkinsonism

15

disease frequently occurring as an adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs mimicking parkinsonism

Pseudoparkinsonism

16

acute exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis

Cholinergic Crisis

17

neuromuscular disorder that attacks the myelin sheath of nerve fibers, causing lesions known as plaques

Multiple Sclerosis

18

drugs that reduce the spasticity of muscles

Muscle Relaxants

19

a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease that affects approximately 14 in 100,000 persons...muscular weakness & fatigue, respiratory muscle paralysis, ptosis, difficultly chewing/swallowing...lack of ACh reaching cholinergic receptors...treated w/ AChE Inhibitors

Myasthenia Gravis (MG)

20

severe generalized muscle weakness that may involve the muscles of respiration

Myasthenia Crisis

21

anticonvulsant (AED) that inhibits sodium inlfux (phenytoin)

Hydantoins

22

G.U.M.S.= Nursing Interventions for Anticonvulsants

nursing interventions for anticonvulsants...G= gingival hyperplasia, U= use alternate birth control, M= mouth care, S= don't stop abruptly

23

Nursing Interventions for Dopaminergic Agent Administration

monitor vital signs & EEG, monitor orthostatic hypotension, observe for weakness, dizziness or syncope; administer with low protein foods, observe for symptoms of parkinsonism

24

Patient Teaching for Dopaminergic Agent Administration

urge pt. not to stop abruptly, advise urine may be discolored, advise not to crush or chew ER tablets, encourage pt. to report side effects, advise that food will slow absorption rate, urge pt. who takes selegiline to avoid foods high in tyramine (hypertension), urge pt. taking amantadine to report skin lesions, seizures or depression; advise pt. taking bromocriptine to report lightheadedness, warn pt. to avoid alcohol when taking bromocriptine, teach pt. to check HR

25

Nursing Interventions for Anticholinergic Agents Administration

monitor vital signs, urine output & bowel sounds; observe for involuntary movements

26

Patient Teaching for Anticholinergic Agents Administration

advise pt. to avoid alcohol, cigarettes, caffeine & aspirin; encourage pt. to relieve dry mouth; suggest sunglasses & sunscreen; advise pt. to void before taking the drug; encourage pt. to have routine eye exams, encourage pt. to eat high fiber foods & increase fluid intake

27

Nursing Interventions for Rivastigmine Administration

maintain consistency in care, assist pt. in ambulation, monitor for side effects, record vital signs, observe for behavioral changes

28

Patient Teaching for Rivastigmine Administration

explain purpose of drug, clarify time for dosing, teach family about safety techniques, inform family of support groups, advise pt. to rise slowly, monitor LFTs, inform family about food preparation for tolerance

29

to relieve muscular spasms & pain associated with traumatic injuries & spasticity from chronic debilitating disorders (MS, stroke, cerebral palsy, head & spinal cord injuries)

Indications for Muscle Relaxants

30

Nursing Interventions for Muscle Relaxant Administration

monitor serum liver enzyme levels of pt. taking dantolene & carisoprodol, record vital signs, observe for CNS effects,

31

Patient Teaching for Muscle Relaxant Administration

teach pt. not to stop abruptly, advise pt. not to drive/operate machinery, inform pt. that drugs are usually not taken longer than 3 weeks, teach pt. to avoid alcohol, advise pt. to use cautiously with pregnancy, encourage pt. to report side effects: N&V, dizziness, fainting, headache, diplopia; advise pt. to take with food

32

Three Ways Anticonvulsants Work

(1) suppressing Na+ influx= Hydantoins (2) suppressing Ca+ influx= Succinamides (3) increasing action of GABA= Barbituates

33

Nonpharmcological Treatments for Parkinsonism

exercise, nutritional diet, support groups

34

Parkinsonism Medications

Anticholinergics, Dopaminergics, Dopamine Agonists, MAO-B inhibitor, COMT inhibitor

35

1st group of drugs for Parkinson's (drug induced)...inhibits release of ACh...decreases tremors...start w/ low dosages then gradually increase...contraindicated in pt. w/ memory loss/dementia, glaucoma, GU obstruction, BPH

Anticholinergics as Parkinson's Drug (benztropine, biperiden, trihexyphenidyl, Benadryl)

36

drugs that decreases symptoms of Parkinson's...carbidopa, a decarboxylase inhibitor, permits more levodopa to reach striatum nerve terminals where it's converted to dopamine

Dopaminergics

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drugs for Parkinson's...selegiline- inhibits catabolic enzymes of dopamine to extend action of dopamine (early treatment of Parkinson's)...rasagiline- inhibits breakdown of dopamine at synapses in brain, allows neurons to reabsorb more dopamine for use later

MAO-B Inhibitor

38

drug that inhibits COMT enzyme increasing concentration of levodopa (used in combo w/ carbidopa-levodopa)

COMT Inhibitor

39

Side Effects of Anticholinergics

red as a beet, dry as a bone, mad as a hatter, hot as a hare, can't see can't pee, can't spit can't shit, N&V, postural hypotension

40

Side Effects of Dopaminergics

GI upset, dyskinesias, orthostatic hypotension, cardiac dysrythmias, psychosis, agranulocytosis (low WBC)

41

tacrine (Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), galantamine (Razadyne), memantine (Namenda XR)

ACh Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease

42

Drugs for Myasthenia Gravis (MG)

ultrashort-acting= Tensilon, short-acting= Prostigmin, intermediate-acting= Mestinon, long-acting= Mytelase

43

Side Effect of AChE Inhibitors for MG

GI disturbances, increased salivation, increased tearing, miosis, blurred vision, bradycardia & hypotension

44

disease characterized by weakness or spasticity in extremeties & double vision (diplopia)

Multiple Sclerosis