GI Agents, Nutrition & Electrolyte Replacement, Herbal Therapy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GI Agents, Nutrition & Electrolyte Replacement, Herbal Therapy Deck (85)
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drugs that act by coating the wall of the GI tract and absorbing bacteria or toxins that cause diarrhea (EX: kaolin, pectin, Pepto-Bismol)



the active ingredients in marijuana approved for clinical use to alleviate nausea & vomiting resulting from cancer treatment



drugs used to eliminate fecal matter; "laxative"



cerebral center lying near the medulla that causes vomiting when stimulated

Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ)


drugs that act as lubricants and stool softeners used to prevent constipation



"hyperolmolar laxatives" including salts or saline products, lactulose, and glycerin



"harsh" carthartics that cause water stool with abdominal cramping



drugs that promote ulcer healing by neutralizing hydrochloric acid and reducing pepsin activity; do not coat the ulcer; two types: systemic & nonsystemic



thick, viscous, mucous material that provides a barrier between the mucosal lining and acidic gastric secretions; maintains the integrity of the gastric lining and is a defense against corrosive substances

Gastric Mucosal Barrier (GMB)


ulcer frequently occurring because of breakdown of the GMB

Gastric Ulcer


ulcer caused by hypersecretion of acid from the stomach passing into the duodenum because of (1) insufficient buffers to neutralize gastric acid in the stomach (2) defective pyloric sphincter or (3) hypermotility of the stomach

Duodenal Ulcer


inflammation or erosion of the esophageal mucosa caused by a reflux of gastric acid content from the stomach into the esophagus

Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease (GERD)


popular drugs used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers that block the H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach, thus reducing gastric acid secretion and concentration (EX: ranitidine, cimetidine, axid)

Histamine2 Receptor Antagonists (H2 Blockers)


acid released by the parietal cells of the stomach influenced by histamine, gastrin & acetylcholine

Hydrochloric Acid


broad term used for an ulcer occurring in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum within the upper GI tract

Peptic Ulcer


ulcer resulting from the reflux of acidic gastric secretions into the esophagus as a result of a defective or incompetent cardiac sphincter

Esophageal Ulcer


digestive enzyme activated at a pH of 2



ulcer following a critical situation such as extensive trauma or major surgery (burns, cardiac surgery)

Stress Ulcer


Nonpharmacological Management Techniques for Upper GI Disorders

Lifestyle changes!!!, low-fat food, increased exercise, eliminate alcohol, avoid chocolate, avoid caffeine, elevate HOB on blocks


vitamin required for development & maintenance of healthy eyes, gums, teeth, skin, hair & selected glands...needed for fat fortified milk, butter, eggs, leafy green & yellow veggies & fruits...naturally only in cod, halibut, shark & tuna...deficiency= dry skin, poor tooth development, night blindness

Vitamin A (Retinol)


vitamin that promotes use of sugars (energy) & required for good function of nervous system & enriched breads/cereals, yeast, liver, pork, fish, milk, lentils, blackstrap molasses...deficiency= sensory disturbances, retarded growth, fatique, anorexia, Wernicke encephalopathy (alcohol abuse)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)


vitamin that promotes body's use of carbs, proteins & fats by releasing energy to cells & required for tissue milk, enriched breads/cereals, liver, lean meat, eggs, almonds, wheat germ, soy, leafy green veggies...deficiency= visual defects (blurred vision & photophobia), cheilosis, rash on nose, extremity numbness

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)


vitamin important in metabolism, protein synthesis, & formation of lean meat, leafy green veggies, whole-grain cereals, yeast, bananas, salmon, soybeans, seeds, nuts, avacados, carrots...deficiency= neuritis, convulsions, dermatitis, anemia, lymphopenia

Vitamin B6 (Pyroxidine)


vitamin that functions as a building block of nucleic acids, forms RBC & facilitates functioning of nervous liver, kidney, fish, milk, eggs, chicken, turkey...deficiency= GI disorders, poor growth, anemias (pernicious anemia) *vegetarians*

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)


vitamin that helps in formation of genetic materials & proteins for the cell nucleus, assists in intestinal functioning & prevents selected leafy green veggies, yellow fruits/veggies, yeast, organ meats, black-eyed peas, lentils...deficiency= decreased WBC & clotting factors, anemias, intestinal disturbances, depression (400 mcg/day in pregnancy)

Folic Acid (Folvite)


vitamine that promotes body's use of carbs, fats & proteins for the cell nucleus and is essential in formation of specific hormones & nerve-regulating eggs, leafy green veggies, nuts, liver, kidney, skim milk, seeds, nuts, wheat germ, salmon...deficiency= unknown in humans

Pantothenic Acid


vitamin in all body tissues necessary for energy-producing reactions and assists in nervous eggs, meat, liver, beans, peas, enriched bread/cereals...deficiency= retarded growth, pellagra, HA, memory loss, anorexia, insomnia



vitamin that synthesizes fatty acids & glucose for energy production and required by body chemical eggs, milk, leafy green veggies, liver, kidney...deficiency= unknown in humans



vitamin that helps tissue repair & growth and required in formation of citrus fruits, cantaloupe, tomatoes, leafy green veggies, sweet red peppers, potatoes, strawberries, kiwi...deficiency= poor wound healing, bleeding gums, scurvy, predisposition to infection

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)


vitamin that promotes the use of phosphorus & calcium and important for strong teeth & fortified milk, egg yolk, tuna, salmon, liver...deficiency= Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults

Vitamin D (Calciferol)