Flashcards in Antimalarials Deck (83)
Five human malaria parasites
Which malaria parasite is responsible for the most malaria deaths?
Which malaria parasites cause relapsing malaria?
Which malaria parasite has a 24 h life cycle?
Which malaria parasite is predominant in the tropics
Which malaria parasite is common in subtropics and temperate regions?
Which malaria parasite is found in West Africa?
Which malaria parasites have 48 h life cycles in the blood?
Which malaria parasite has a 72 h life cycle in the blood?
Which malaria parasite do you always treat with Primaquine because of hypnozoites in the liver?
P. vivax and P. ovale
What's the name of the mosquito that does malaria?
Classic symptoms of uncomplicated malaria?
cold stage, hot stage, sweating stage, fever and flu-like symptoms (chills, headache, myalgias, and malaise)
anemia and jaundice
Symptoms of severe malaria?
serious organ failure, including kidney
severe anemia and hemoglobinuria
acute respiratory distress syndrome
Describe cerebral malaria
abnormal behavior, impairment of consciousness, seizures, coma or other neurologic abnormalitites
Describe placental malaria
Happens especially during first pregnancy
Causes low birth weight and miscarriage
kills liver stage parasites
kills erythrocytic forms
Kills sexual stages
Factors to consider with malaria chemoprophylaxis
level and type of drug resistance
lead time before travel
Atovaquone + Proguanil
Start 1-2 d prior and continue 7 d after
daily admin + short pretreatment
Start 1-2 d prior and continue 4 weeks
Aralen and generic
Chloroquine sensitive areas (Central/South America)
start 1-2 wk prior and continue 4 wk after leave area
Lariam and generic
Mefloquine sensitive areas
start >2 wk early and continue 4 wks
if >90 P. vivax in area
start 1-2 d prior and continue 7 d after
Considerations for malaria treatment
type (species) of the infecting parasite
area where the infection was acquired and its drug-resistance status
clinical status of the patient
Treatment of uncomplicated malaria infection with P. vivax or P. ovale (hypnozoites in liver) in a CQ sensitive area?
1. Chloroquine [Aralen and generic] or
2. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Plaquenil] + primaquine (14d)
Treatment of uncomplicated malaria infection with P vivax or P ovale in a CQ resistant area?
1. Quinine sulfate + Doxycycline/Tetracycline + Primaquine OR
2. Atovaquone + Proguanil [Malarone] + Primaquine OR
3. Mefloquine [Lariam and generic] + Primaquine
Treatment of uncomplicated malaria with P. malariae or P. knowlesi?
1. Chloroquine [Aralen and generic] OR
2. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Plaquenil]
In general, what do you use in chloroquine sensitive areas for uncomplicated/unidentified species?
Chloroquine [Aralen] and Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Plaquenil]