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Flashcards in Antimalarials Deck (83)
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1

Five human malaria parasites

Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium knowlesi

2

Which malaria parasite is responsible for the most malaria deaths?

Plasmodium falciparum

3

Which malaria parasites cause relapsing malaria?

Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale

4

Which malaria parasite has a 24 h life cycle?

Plasmodium knowlesi

5

Which malaria parasite is predominant in the tropics

Plasmodium falciparum

6

Which malaria parasite is common in subtropics and temperate regions?

Plasmodium vivax

7

Which malaria parasite is found in West Africa?

Plasmodium ovale

8

Which malaria parasites have 48 h life cycles in the blood?

P. falciparum
P. vivax
P. ovale

9

Which malaria parasite has a 72 h life cycle in the blood?

P. malariae

10

Which malaria parasite do you always treat with Primaquine because of hypnozoites in the liver?

P. vivax and P. ovale

11

What's the name of the mosquito that does malaria?

anopheles mosquito

12

Classic symptoms of uncomplicated malaria?

cold stage, hot stage, sweating stage, fever and flu-like symptoms (chills, headache, myalgias, and malaise)
anemia and jaundice

13

Symptoms of severe malaria?

serious organ failure, including kidney
cerebral malaria
severe anemia and hemoglobinuria
acute respiratory distress syndrome
placental malaria

14

Describe cerebral malaria

abnormal behavior, impairment of consciousness, seizures, coma or other neurologic abnormalitites

15

Describe placental malaria

Happens especially during first pregnancy
Causes low birth weight and miscarriage

16

Tissue schizonticides

kills liver stage parasites

17

Blood schizonticides

kills erythrocytic forms

18

Gametocytocides

Kills sexual stages
Blocks transmission

19

Factors to consider with malaria chemoprophylaxis

species present
level and type of drug resistance
lead time before travel

20

Malarone

Atovaquone + Proguanil
All areas
Start 1-2 d prior and continue 7 d after
daily admin + short pretreatment

21

Doxycycline

All areas
Start 1-2 d prior and continue 4 weeks

22

Chloroquine

Aralen and generic
Chloroquine sensitive areas (Central/South America)
start 1-2 wk prior and continue 4 wk after leave area

23

Mefloquine

Lariam and generic
Mefloquine sensitive areas
start >2 wk early and continue 4 wks
toxicity issues

24

Primaquine

if >90 P. vivax in area
start 1-2 d prior and continue 7 d after

25

Considerations for malaria treatment

type (species) of the infecting parasite
area where the infection was acquired and its drug-resistance status
clinical status of the patient

26

Treatment of uncomplicated malaria infection with P. vivax or P. ovale (hypnozoites in liver) in a CQ sensitive area?

1. Chloroquine [Aralen and generic] or
2. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Plaquenil] + primaquine (14d)

27

Treatment of uncomplicated malaria infection with P vivax or P ovale in a CQ resistant area?

1. Quinine sulfate + Doxycycline/Tetracycline + Primaquine OR
2. Atovaquone + Proguanil [Malarone] + Primaquine OR
3. Mefloquine [Lariam and generic] + Primaquine

28

Treatment of uncomplicated malaria with P. malariae or P. knowlesi?

1. Chloroquine [Aralen and generic] OR
2. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Plaquenil]

29

In general, what do you use in chloroquine sensitive areas for uncomplicated/unidentified species?

Chloroquine [Aralen] and Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [Plaquenil]

30

In general, what do you use in chloroquine resistant areas for an uncomplicated/unidentified malaria infection?

1. Malarone [Atovaquone + Proguanil]
2. Coartem [Artemether + lumefantrine]
3. Quinine sulfate + Doxycycline/Tetracycline/Clindamycin
4. Lariam [Mefloquine]