Other Pathogenic Protozoa Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Test #2 > Other Pathogenic Protozoa > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other Pathogenic Protozoa Deck (80)
Loading flashcards...
1

Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii

eating raw meat
cat feces

2

Describe the T. gondii life cycle.

-sexual development only in cat
-cysts develop in other mammals
-can get infected from oocysts shed by cats or by eating raw meat containing tissue cysts

3

Who does severe toxoplasmosis typically happen to?

HIV/AIDS patients, organ transplant patients, chemotherapy patients

4

Congenital toxoplasmosis

fetus becomes infected via placenta in women who are infected for the first time

5

First line therapy for toxoplasma gondii?

pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine

6

Parasitic infections associated with HIV in the US?

Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumonia)
Toxoplasma gondii (encephalitis)
Cryptosporidium (cryptosporidiosis)

7

Parasitic infections associated with HIV globally?

Malaria
Leishmania
Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)

8

First line agent for the treatment of West African trypanosomiasis?

Pentamidine

9

Alternative treatment for visceral leishmania and pneumocystosis?

Pentamidine

10

Describe the toxicity of pentamidine.

highly toxic
50% of patients show side effects
can cause hypo or hyperglycemia (rare)

11

Anaerobic protozoa

Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)
Giardia lamblia (giardiasis)
Trichomonas vaginalis

12

Describe symptoms of an Entamoeba histolytica infection

causes diarrhea and ulcers on the lining of the intestine

13

What promotes the spread of amebiasis?

poor sanitation and fecal contamination of food and water

14

Where does amebiasis initially infect?

initially infects the intestine (sometimes reaches other organs such as liver)

15

Symptoms of amebiasis?

diarrhea, increased flatulence, abdominal cramps (some people develop liver abscesses)

16

Treatment of choice for Giardia lamblia?

Metronidazole
Nitazoxanide

17

Most frequent cause of recreational water-related disease outbreaks?

Cryptosporidium

18

Most common symptoms of Cryptosporidium

Watery diarrhea (most common)
stomach cramps/pain
dehydration
nausea/vomiting
fever
weight loss

19

Drug of choice for cryptosporidium?

Nitazoxanide

20

Symptoms of Trichomonas in men?

frequently asymptomatic

21

Symptoms of Trichomonas in women?

vaginitis with a purulent discharge
vulvar and cervical lesions, abdominal pain, dysuria, and dyspareunia

22

Drug of choice for extraintestinal Entamoeba histolytica, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis

Metronidazole

23

What does metronidazole kill?

kills trophozoites but not cysts

24

Similar drug to metronidazole with less toxicity

Tinidazole

25

What is metronidazole treatment usually followed by?

luminal drug to eliminate asymptomatic infection

26

What happens with metronidazole and alcohol?

Antabuse (disulfrim) effect: nausea, vomiting, and increased heart rate

27

What does metronidazole inhibit?

acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

28

Drugs for intestinal forms of amebiasis?

Paromomycin
Iodoquinol

29

What is paromomycin also active against?

Cryptosporidium

30

What does Nitazoxanide do?

inhibits the growth of sporozoites and oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and trophozoites of Giardia lamblia