Flashcards in Other Pathogenic Protozoa Deck (80)
Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii
eating raw meat
Describe the T. gondii life cycle.
-sexual development only in cat
-cysts develop in other mammals
-can get infected from oocysts shed by cats or by eating raw meat containing tissue cysts
Who does severe toxoplasmosis typically happen to?
HIV/AIDS patients, organ transplant patients, chemotherapy patients
fetus becomes infected via placenta in women who are infected for the first time
First line therapy for toxoplasma gondii?
pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine
Parasitic infections associated with HIV in the US?
Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumonia)
Toxoplasma gondii (encephalitis)
Parasitic infections associated with HIV globally?
Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)
First line agent for the treatment of West African trypanosomiasis?
Alternative treatment for visceral leishmania and pneumocystosis?
Describe the toxicity of pentamidine.
50% of patients show side effects
can cause hypo or hyperglycemia (rare)
Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)
Giardia lamblia (giardiasis)
Describe symptoms of an Entamoeba histolytica infection
causes diarrhea and ulcers on the lining of the intestine
What promotes the spread of amebiasis?
poor sanitation and fecal contamination of food and water
Where does amebiasis initially infect?
initially infects the intestine (sometimes reaches other organs such as liver)
Symptoms of amebiasis?
diarrhea, increased flatulence, abdominal cramps (some people develop liver abscesses)
Treatment of choice for Giardia lamblia?
Most frequent cause of recreational water-related disease outbreaks?
Most common symptoms of Cryptosporidium
Watery diarrhea (most common)
Drug of choice for cryptosporidium?
Symptoms of Trichomonas in men?
Symptoms of Trichomonas in women?
vaginitis with a purulent discharge
vulvar and cervical lesions, abdominal pain, dysuria, and dyspareunia
Drug of choice for extraintestinal Entamoeba histolytica, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis
What does metronidazole kill?
kills trophozoites but not cysts
Similar drug to metronidazole with less toxicity
What is metronidazole treatment usually followed by?
luminal drug to eliminate asymptomatic infection
What happens with metronidazole and alcohol?
Antabuse (disulfrim) effect: nausea, vomiting, and increased heart rate
What does metronidazole inhibit?
Drugs for intestinal forms of amebiasis?
What is paromomycin also active against?