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Flashcards in Immunopharmacology Deck (29)
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1

Acute rejection defined as

rejection that occurs 24 hours to several weeks following organ transplantation

2

Adrenocortical steroids used for

induction and maintenance of immunosuppression

3

What do adrenocortical steroids do?

reduce circulating lymphocyte levels, block lymphocyte activation required for antigen presentation, and block T-cell proliferation

4

Name an alkylating agent

cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide (VERY TOXIC)

5

Inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis

azathiprine and 6-mercaptopurine (1st gen)
mycophenolate mofetil and inosine 5' monophosphate deydrogenase inhibitor (2nd gen)

6

methotrexate is in which class of immunosuppressants

inhibitor of de novo purine synthesis

7

inhibitors of de novo pyrimidine synthesis inhibit which enzyme

dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

8

Cyclosporine and tacrolimus are drugs used for

the induction and maintenance of immunosuppression
block T-cell signaling pathways that stimulate IL-2

9

Cyclosporine associates with

calcineurin and inhibits its phosphatase activity
prevents translocation of NFAT family of transcription factors

10

limiting factor for the use of cyclosporine

renal toxicity

11

Tacrolimus

macrolide antibiotic
100X more potent than cyclosporine

12

Tacrolimus binds

to cytoplasmic protein FK506-binding protein 12 - creates a complex that inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin

13

Sirolimus inhibits

calcineurin by binding FKBP12 and mTOR

14

Belatacept

targeted immunosuppressant drug for the replacement of calcineurin inhibitors over time

15

Belatacept inhibits

CD28-mediated T cell costimulation by binding to CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells

16

Common adverse effects of belatacept

anemia, neutropenia, UTIs, headache, and peripheral edema

17

Rapamycine is

a marocyclic lactone that targets mTOR
used in treatment against acute transplant rejection

18

Everolimus is used after

renal transplantation because it shows very little nephrotoxicity

19

What does FTY720 do

reduces the number of circulating T cells by driving them into lymphoid tissues
treats MS

20

TNF-alpha inhibitors used for

rheumatoid arthritis

21

primary drugs used to treat any autoimmune disease

corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone)

22

Why should you avoid long-term corticosteroids

increases the risk of infections, ulcers, hyperglycemia and osteoporosis

23

Cyclophophamide

interferes with DNA synthesis and function by alkylation

24

Azathioprine

antimetabolite that interferes with DNA synthesis
metabolized to mercaptopurine

25

Mercaptopurine

interferes with RNA and DNA synthesis after conversion into purine antagonist inside cells

26

Leflunomide

prodrug of an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis
treats RA

27

What do you measure during cyclosporine treatment

blood levels because of the variability in cyclosporine absorption
patient must be on a strict diet

28

Antihistamines

H1 blockers
diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine

29

Immunostimulants

1. Echinacea
2. Acemannan
3. Beta-1,3-glucan
4. QS-21
5 Detoxififed Freund's adjuvant