Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents Deck (30)
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1

What do first generation quinolones have limited activity against

gram (+) bacteria

2

What are first generation quinolones only useful for

treatment of lower urinary tract infections

3

Describe the activity of second generation quinolones

broader spectrum of bactericidal activity and are more potent

4

Most potent fluoroquinolone

Ciprofloxacin

5

What do second generation quinolones have activity against

extended activity against gram (+) organisms and mycoplasma

6

What do 3rd and 4th generation quinolones have improved activity against

gram (+) organisms, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae

7

Moxifloxacin is considered?

a drug of last resort because of its severe side effects

8

What do gyrases and topoisomerases do?

untangle DNA by cutting one or two strands, and then allowing strand passage through the break or allowing the DNA to twist

9

How do different topoisomerases cleave DNA

so that either the 3'-hydroxyl or the 5'-hydroxyl of the DNA can become enzyme-linked

10

The topoisomerase-catalyzed reaction is?

reversible and usually equilibrium favors the uncleaved DNA, so cleavage complexes are present in very small amounts

11

How do bacterial/mammalian gyrases and topoisomerases cleave DNA

cleaves both opposing strands with a four-base stagger

12

What step is blocked by quinolones

DNA religation

13

Most common use of quinolones

urinary tract infections

14

Which quinolones are effective for urinary tract infections

Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and nalidixic acid

15

Which quinolones are effective for prostatitis?

Norfloxacin, ciprofloxcin, and ofloxacin

16

Which STDs are quinolones effective against

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatic, and Haemophilus ducreyi

17

Which quinolones do you use for Chlamydia trachomatis

ofloxacin or sparfloxacin

18

Which quinolone do you use for Haemophilus ducreyi

ciprofloxacin

19

First line treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

ceftriaxone (a cephalosporin)

20

Effective quinolone treatments for shigellosis

Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

21

Many of the newer fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin have excellent activity versus?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

22

Respiratory tract exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients are responded to?

fluoroquinolone therapy

23

Sole therapy in 50% of diabetic foot infections

ciprofloxacin

24

Treatment of bone, joint, and soft tissue infections with quinolones

fluoroquinolones (except norfloxacin)

25

Which quinolones have useful activity against intracellular bacteria

norfloxacin and ciprofoxacin

26

Clearance of fluoroquinolones?

renal and hepatic clearance (except oxafloxacin)

27

Why should quinolones not be administered with foods and drugs that contain heavy metals

quinolones form insoluble chelates with heavy metals

28

CNS side effects of quinolones

headache and dizziness
rare hallucinations, delirium and seizures
associated with peripheral neuropathies

29

Why are quinolones not recommended for patients under the age of 18

fluoroquinolones may damage growing cartilage and cause arthropathy

30

Adverse effects with specific agents:

1. photosensitivity with lomefloxacin
2. hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in diabetic patients with gatifloxacin