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Flashcards in Anxiety Deck (51):
1

What are the three divisions of anxiety?

-anxiety disorders
-ocd and related disorders
-trauma and stressor related disorders

2

What are the three criteria for ocd?

A. Obsessions and/or compulsions
B. Consumed more than on hour per day.
C. Causes distress or impairment.

3

Define obsessions

Intrusive and persistent thoughts, images or impulses

4

Define compulsions

Repetitive behaviour that the person feels driven to do to prevent a dreaded event.

5

What are the specifies of ocd?

With good insight
With poor insight.
With absent insight.

6

What are the features of ocd?

-compulsions reduce anxiety caused by obsessions.
-prone to procrastinating and infections
-begin before age 10 or in late teens/ easrmg adulthood.
-most common: cleaning rituals, checking rituals, ordering and arranging

7

What are the most common compulsions?

Cleaning rituals
Checking rituals
Ordering and arranging.

8

What does the biological perspective consider to be a cause of OCD?

Genetics
Neurotransmitters (serotonin)
Neurological (brain circuit involved in detecting danger won’t turn off)

9

What does the learning perspective look at as a cause of OCD?

Operant conditioning: compulsions are negatively reinforced

10

What does the cognitive perspective look at (common thinking patterns among those with ocd)

- overestimation of threat
-inflated responsibility
-overimoortance lf thoughts
-perfectionism
-intolerance of uncertainty

11

What are the treatments for OCD?

-antidepressants
-behavioural therApy (exposure and response prevention)
-cognitive therapy (cognitive restructuring) -> through stopping techniques: •changing mindset •self talk •social

12

What are the criteria for PTSD ?

A. Exposed to a several traumatic event
B. Persistently re-experiencing the event (1 or more)
-upsetting memories
-dreams
-flashbacks
C. Avoidance of reminders (1 or more)
-memories
-external reminders
D. Changed in cognitions and mood (2 or more)
- inability to recall parts of the trauma
-distorted cognitjoms about self or trauma
-persistent negative emotional state
-loss of interest
-feelings of detachment from others
E. Increases arousal (2 or more)
- insomnia
-irritability/anger
-hyper vigilant
-exaggerated startle response
-problems with concentrations
F. Lasting more than 1 month.

13

B. Persistent re-experiencing the events (1 or more)

1. Upsetting memories
2. Dreams.
3. Flashbacks.

14

C. Avoidance of reminders (1 or more)

1. Memories
2. External reminders

15

D. Changed in cognitjoms and mood ( 2 or more) I

1. Inability to recall parts of trauma.
2. Distorted cognitjoms about self or trauma
3. Persistent negative emotional state.
4. Loss of interest.
5. Feelings of detachment from others

16

E. Increase arousal. (2 or more)

1. Insomnia
2. Irritability/anger
3. Reckless behaviour
4. Hyper vigilant
5. Exaggerated startle response
6. Problems with concentration.

17

What is acute stress disorder ?

- same as PTSD
- may also experience dissociative symptoms
- duration of 3 to 4 weeks.

18

What are the three subheadings of factors affecting the likelihood of ptsd?

Features of the trauma.
Features of the person.
Features of the posttrauma environment

19

What are the features of the trauma?

- intensify of exposure
- duration of exposure
-extend of perceived danger
- cause of trauma

20

What are the features of the person ?

-pre-trauma psychological adjustment
-family history of mental illness
-coping styles
-guilt( blaming self and survival guilt )

21

What are the features of the post trauma environwmrn ?

Social support
Additional stressors

22

What are the preventions?

•debriefing
-educate/normalise
-support
-healthy practices

23

What are the treatments for ptsd

Medications (benzodiazepines and atidepesssents)
Exposure therapy
Cognitive restructuring
Stress management skills
Support group

24

What are the DSM criteria for GAD?

A. Excessive worry for at least 6montbs about several situations
B. Difficulty controlling worry.
C. Additional symptoms (at least 3.
D causes distress or impairment

25

What are the additional symptoms of GAD?

Restlessness
Tire easily
Difficulty concentrating
Irritable
Muscle tension
Sleep problems

26

What are the features of gad?

Expect something bad to happen
Anxiety about anxiety
More common in women
Often chronic

27

What add the biological causes of gad?

Genetics. Nt ( gaba, serotonin, norepinephrine)

28

What are the causes of gad according to the cognitive perspective ?

Oversensitive to threat
Intolerance of uncertainty

29

What are the causes of gad according to the learning behavioural perspective ?

Operant conditioning (worrying reinforced )

30

What are the treatments of GAD ?

-Medication (benzodiazepines, antidepressants)
- cognitive/behavioural therapy
•relaxation training
*progressice muscle relaxation
* deep breathing exercises
* imagery
•set worry times
• repalace irrational thoughts
• problem solving skills

31

What are the criteria for panic disorder?

A. Recurrent,uncued panic attacks
B. Followed by 1 month of one or both:
1. Persistent worry about future Attacks
2. A maladaptive change in behaviour

32

What are symptoms of a panic attack disorder (at least four. Peeks in ten minutes )

Sweating
Nausea
Dizziness
Trembling
Gasping for breath
Chicken sensation
Increase in pulse
Increase in heart rate
Feelings of numbness
Hot flashes or chills
Chest pains
Fear of dying or losing control

33

What are the five features of panic attack disorder

Frequency and severity vary widely
Interocwlfibe avoidance
Nocturnal panic
More common in women
Risk of alcohols abuse among men

34

What are the criteria for agoraphobia

A. Fear or anxiety about 2 or more
- using transportation
- being in open spaces
- being enclosed spaces
- standing in line or being in a crowd
- being outside the home alone
B. The fear stems from not being able to escape or get help.
C. These situations are avoided.
D. The fear is out of proportion to the actual danger.
E. Causes distress or impairment

35

What are the biological causes of panic disorder and agrophobka ? Hey

Genetics
Nt (gaba -> inhibitory , norepinephrine -> flight or fight )
Overly sensitive fear network (amygdala and locus coerculeus )

36

Cognitive perspective causes of panic disorder and agrophobua

Heightened awareness of body sensation.
Overestimation of threat.

37

Learning / behavioural causes of panic disorder and agrophobia.

Classical conditioning (internal and external cues linked to panic) operant conditioning (avoidance and escape reinforced )

38

Treatment of panic disorder and agrophobja

Medication.
Exposure and response prevention (-educate -relaxation training-gradual exposure and prevent escape -cognitive restructuring )

39

Dsm criteria for specific phobias

A. Intense and persistent (over 6 months) fear of an object or situation.
B. The fear is out of proportion to the actual danger.
C. Avoidance of the phonic stimulus.
D. Causes distress or impairment.

40

Five main types of specific phobias

Animal type
Natural environment type
Blood injection injury type
Situational type
Other

41

Possible biological cause of specific phobias

Genetics
Prepared conditioning

42

Learning/ behavioural perspective cause of specific ohobia

Classical conditioning (traumatic event, experiencing a panic atk in a specific situation. )
Operant conditioning (avoidance and escape reinforced )
Observational learning

43

What is a possible cause according to cognitive perspective of sepecific phobias.

Oversensitivity to thread.

44

Treatment of specific phobias.

Exposure based therapy
- systematic desenstizatiom
1. Create fear hierarchy
2. Teach relaxation skills
3. Exposure in imagination.
4. Love exposure.
- gradual exposure
- flooding

45

Dsm criteria for social ansixietg disorder( over six months)

A. Fear of social or performance situations
B. Fear of being negatively evaluated.
C. These situations are avoided.
D. The fear is out of proportion to the actual danger.
E. Causes distress or impairment

46

Features of social anxiety disorder

May interfere with work, social functioning
Self fulfilling prophecy
Low self esteem.
Increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse

47

Biological causes of social anxiety disorder

Prepared conditioning
Temperamental profile of shyness

48

Cause if social anxiety according to the learning perspective

Classical conditioning (traumatic social experiences )
Operant conditioning (escape and avoidance reinforced )

49

Causes of social anxiety according to the cognitive perspective

Overestimation of threat.
Mind reading

50

Causes of social anxiety according to the social cultural perspective.

Hugh risk parenting styles (overprotective. Over concerned with appearances. Discourage socialising )

51

Treatment of social anxiety

Medication
Behaviour therapy (relaxation exercises. Social skills training. Exposure (gradual or flooding)). Cognitive therapy.