Flashcards in Neurodevelopmental Disorders Deck (39):
What are the three neurodevelopmental disorders we look at ?
Autism spectrum disorder
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific learning disorder
What are the 4 criteria for autism spectrum disorder?
A. Impairement in social interactions (all 3 symptoms )
B. Repetitive patterns of behaviour and interest (at least 2)
C. Symptoms present in early developmental period
D. Significant impairment.
What are the symptoms of impairement in soch interactions ?
1. Impairement in the use of non verbal behaviour
2. deficits in peer relationships
3. Lack of social or emotional reciprocity
What are examples of impairement in the use of non verbal behaviour in low functioning individuals ?
No eye contact
Arches back when picked up.
What are example of impairement in the use of non verbal behaviours in high functioning individuals ?
Minimal facial expression
Unusual body posture
What are examples of deification in peer relationships in low functioning individuals
No interaction with others
No make believe play or imitation
What are example of deficits in peer relationships in high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum disorder?
Difficulty picking up social cues.
Difficulty adjusting to the social context
What are example of lack of social or emotional reciprocity in low functioning individuals ?
Do not share interests
Do not notice others distress
Cannot see things from another’s perspective
What are examples of lack of social or emotional reciprocity in high functioning individuals ?
Conversations are one way
Do not pick up on emotional cues
Do not understand sarcasm
What are the four symptoms of repetitive patterns of behaviour ?
1. Repetitive motor movement, use of object or speech.
2. Fixated interests
3 inflexible adherence to routines
4. Hyper or hypo reactivity to sensory input
What are examples of repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech on low functioning individuals ?
What are examples of fixated interests in low functioning individuals
Attachment to objects
Preoccupations (eg turning on and off lights )
Give examples of fixated interests in high functioning individuals ?
Extensive knowledge in area of interest.
What are the specifiers for autism spectrum disorder ?
- with or without intellectual impairment
- with or without language impairement
- severity ( requiring support/substantial support/very substantial support )
What are the features of autism spectrum disorder?
Motor deficits are common
Self injury is common
Prone to anxiety and depression
Autistic savants (10%)
More common in males
What are the causes of autism spectrum disorder?
-abnormal brain growth
-smaller corpus callosum
Treatment to autism spectrum disorder
-self care skills
What are the criteria for ADHD?
A. Either (1) or (2)
1. Innatention (minimum 6 symptoms )
2. Hyperactivity and/or impulsivity (minimum 6 symptoms )
B. Onset before the age of 12
C. Duration of at least 6 months
D. Impairement in two or more settings
What are the 9 symptoms for innatention ?
Makes careless mistakes.
Poor attention in tasks
Doesn’t finish tasks.
Avoid sustained mental effort.
List the 6 symptoms of hyperactivity
Can’t sit stil
Runs about or climbs excessively
Can’t play quietly
On the go
List the 3 symptoms of impulsivity
Blurts our answers before question completed.
Trouble waiting his turn
List eight school problems of ADHD
Poor cognitive strategies.
Inferior at group work.
Poor self esteem.
What are the theee subtypes of ADHD?
ADHD, combined type
ADHD, inattentive type
ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type
Describe adhd in teens,
70% continued to have attention problems
40% had low self esteem
26% had a history of delinquent behaviour
ADHD in adults
50% reported continued problems
Increases rates of
- depression and anxiety
What are the biological causes of adhd?
-reduces activity in frontal lobes
•increases rates of dopamine reuptake
•prenatal and birth complications
-maternal smoking,alcohol or drug use, lead
-low birth weight, premature and difficult delivery.
What are the psychological and social factors that may have caused adhd?
Poor parenting skills
What are the treatments for adhd ?
Medication(stimulants ) and psychosocial treatment
What are the 5 short term effects of stimulants?
Decrease in motor activity.
Decrease in impulsivity.
Improve ability to concentrate
No improvement in academic performance.
What are the long term effects of stimulants?
•viewed their childhood more positively.
•better social skills
•better self esteem
•no benefits in
-level of education completed
What are the 5 short term side effects of stimulants
Decrease appetite and weight loss
Abdominal pain and headaches.
Irritability and increased crying
Increases in heart rate and blood pressure
What are the infrequent side effects of stimulants ?
Loss of spontaneity
What are the 3 long term concern of stimulants
Future drug use
What are the psychosocial treatements for ADHD?
•accomodation in schools
•self instructional training
-taught when to attend and when to ignore
-catch their children being good
-taught to make them demands more effectively
-social skills intervention
-academic skills training
Define learning disorders
When a persons skill reading, writing, or mathematics is substantially below what would be expected to his or her age, education, and intelligence.
What are the three types of learning disorders ?
Reading disorder (dyslexia )
Disorder of written expression
Mathematics disorder (dyscalculia)
What are the consequences of learning disorders ?
Low self esteem
40% drop out of schools
Causes of learning disorders?
-impaired visual processing
-dysfunction in other sensory pathways
-impairement in brains language areas