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Flashcards in Neurodevelopmental Disorders Deck (39):
1

What are the three neurodevelopmental disorders we look at ?

Autism spectrum disorder
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific learning disorder

2

What are the 4 criteria for autism spectrum disorder?

A. Impairement in social interactions (all 3 symptoms )
B. Repetitive patterns of behaviour and interest (at least 2)
C. Symptoms present in early developmental period
D. Significant impairment.

3

What are the symptoms of impairement in soch interactions ?

1. Impairement in the use of non verbal behaviour
2. deficits in peer relationships
3. Lack of social or emotional reciprocity

4

What are examples of impairement in the use of non verbal behaviour in low functioning individuals ?

No eye contact
Doesn’t smile
Arches back when picked up.

5

What are example of impairement in the use of non verbal behaviours in high functioning individuals ?

Minimal facial expression
Awkward gestures
Unusual body posture

6

What are examples of deification in peer relationships in low functioning individuals

No interaction with others
No make believe play or imitation

7

What are example of deficits in peer relationships in high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum disorder?

Difficulty picking up social cues.
Difficulty adjusting to the social context

8

What are example of lack of social or emotional reciprocity in low functioning individuals ?

Do not share interests
No pointing
Do not notice others distress
Cannot see things from another’s perspective

9

What are examples of lack of social or emotional reciprocity in high functioning individuals ?

Conversations are one way
Do not pick up on emotional cues
Do not understand sarcasm
Very literal

10

What are the four symptoms of repetitive patterns of behaviour ?

1. Repetitive motor movement, use of object or speech.
2. Fixated interests
3 inflexible adherence to routines
4. Hyper or hypo reactivity to sensory input

11

What are examples of repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech on low functioning individuals ?

Hand flapping
Spinning objects
Echolalia

12

What are examples of fixated interests in low functioning individuals

Attachment to objects
Preoccupations (eg turning on and off lights )

13

Give examples of fixated interests in high functioning individuals ?

Extensive knowledge in area of interest.

14

What are the specifiers for autism spectrum disorder ?

- with or without intellectual impairment
- with or without language impairement
- severity ( requiring support/substantial support/very substantial support )

15

What are the features of autism spectrum disorder?

Motor deficits are common
Self injury is common
Behaviour problems
Prone to anxiety and depression
Autistic savants (10%)
More common in males

16

What are the causes of autism spectrum disorder?

Biological
•genetics
-chromosomal abnormalities
•prenatal factors
-rubella
•brain abnormalities
-abnormal brain growth
-smaller corpus callosum
-enlarged amygdala

17

Treatment to autism spectrum disorder

•behaviour modification
-communication skills
-self care skills
-behaviour problems
-social skills

18

What are the criteria for ADHD?

A. Either (1) or (2)
1. Innatention (minimum 6 symptoms )
2. Hyperactivity and/or impulsivity (minimum 6 symptoms )
B. Onset before the age of 12
C. Duration of at least 6 months
D. Impairement in two or more settings

19

What are the 9 symptoms for innatention ?

Makes careless mistakes.
Poor attention in tasks
Doesn’t listen.
Doesn’t finish tasks.
Poor organisation.
Avoid sustained mental effort.
Loses things
Easily distracted.
Forgetful.

20

List the 6 symptoms of hyperactivity

Fidget
Can’t sit stil
Runs about or climbs excessively
Can’t play quietly
On the go
Talks excessively

21

List the 3 symptoms of impulsivity

Blurts our answers before question completed.
Trouble waiting his turn
Interrupts

22

List eight school problems of ADHD

Poor cognitive strategies.
Inferior at group work.
Poor achievement
Poor motivation.
Frequent reprimands
Poor relationships
Poor self esteem.
Depression

23

What are the theee subtypes of ADHD?

ADHD, combined type
ADHD, inattentive type
ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type

24

Describe adhd in teens,

Hyperactivity decreases
70% continued to have attention problems
40% had low self esteem
26% had a history of delinquent behaviour

25

ADHD in adults

50% reported continued problems
Increases rates of
- depression and anxiety
-legal infractions
-traffic accidents
-job changes
-substance use

26

What are the biological causes of adhd?

•genetics
•brain abnormalities
-neurologically immature
-reduces activity in frontal lobes
•increases rates of dopamine reuptake
•prenatal and birth complications
-maternal smoking,alcohol or drug use, lead
-low birth weight, premature and difficult delivery.

27

What are the psychological and social factors that may have caused adhd?

Poor parenting skills
Request disruptions
Parental stress

28

What are the treatments for adhd ?

Medication(stimulants ) and psychosocial treatment

29

What are the 5 short term effects of stimulants?

Decrease in motor activity.
Decrease in impulsivity.
Decrease aggressiveness
Improve ability to concentrate
No improvement in academic performance.

30

What are the long term effects of stimulants?

•viewed their childhood more positively.
•better social skills
•better self esteem
•no benefits in
-level of education completed
-psychiatric history
-delinquent behaviour

31

What are the 5 short term side effects of stimulants

Insomnia
Decrease appetite and weight loss
Abdominal pain and headaches.
Irritability and increased crying
Increases in heart rate and blood pressure

32

What are the infrequent side effects of stimulants ?

Tics
Behavioural rebound
Loss of spontaneity

33

What are the 3 long term concern of stimulants

Growth effects
Cardiovascular effects
Future drug use

34

What are the psychosocial treatements for ADHD?

•behavioural programs
•accomodation in schools
•self instructional training
•parent training
-taught when to attend and when to ignore
-special time
-catch their children being good
-taught to make them demands more effectively
-social skills intervention
-academic skills training

35

Define learning disorders

When a persons skill reading, writing, or mathematics is substantially below what would be expected to his or her age, education, and intelligence.

36

What are the three types of learning disorders ?

Reading disorder (dyslexia )
Disorder of written expression
Mathematics disorder (dyscalculia)

37

What are the consequences of learning disorders ?

Low self esteem
Low motivation
40% drop out of schools

38

Causes of learning disorders?

Neurobiological features
-impaired visual processing
-dysfunction in other sensory pathways
-impairement in brains language areas
Genetics

39

What are the treatments for learning disabilities

Accentuate strengths
Remedial training
Learning strategies and accommodation