AP Biology Chapter 4-5*** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP Biology Chapter 4-5*** Deck (92):
1

what do most organic compounds contain other than carbon?

hydrogen

2

what is vitalism and was it proven to be true?

the idea that organic compounds arise only in organisms...no this is false. disproved when chemists synthesized these compounds

3

what is mechanism? and who demonstrated this?

the view that all natural phenomena are governed by physical and chemical laws. Stanley Miller showed in an experiment how the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds could arise from nonliving things

4

how many electrons does carbon need to be "happy"?

4

5

what type of bonds does carbon make?

single or double bonds

6

the ability of carbon to connect to four other atoms/elements means what?

that is has versatility to make large complex molecules

7

what are carbons most frequent partners?

hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

8

what are skeletons?

carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules

9

what are the variations in skeletons?

vary in length, may be unbranched or branched, may have double bonds which can vary in location, can be arranged in rings

10

are hydrocarbons prevalent in most living organisms?

no but many of a cell's organic molecules have regions consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.

11

what are characteristics of hydrocarbons?

can undergo reactions that release a relatively large amount of energy.
-atoms of hydrogen are attached to the carbon skeleton wherever electrons are available for covalent bonding

12

structural isomers differ in mostly what?

the variation in the carbon skeleton. whether its branched or in a ring etc
-also can differ in location of double bond

13

cis-trans isomers usually involve what?...what does the "cis" mean and what does the "trans" mean

a double bond between two carbon atoms...
1. cis is when the two x's are on the same side
2. trans is when the two x's (or atoms that the carbon is attached to) are on opposite sides

14

what is an asymmetric carbon?

one that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms

15

what is the idea of enantiomers

the atoms or groups of atoms can be moved around the carbon in different ways

16

what are functional groups?

The functional group gives the molecule
its properties... they are centers of chemical reactivity.

17

hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhyrdryl, and phosphate chemical groups are all what.... (having to do with water)

hyrdophillic meaning it makes the molecules easily dissolve into water

18

the methyl group is what....(having to do with water)

hydrophobic instead what it does is serve as a recognizable tag on biological molecules.

19

the critically important large molecules of all living things fall into which four main classes?

1. Carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids

20

which of the four main classes of large molecules are categorized as macromolecules?

carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids

21

macromolecules can also be seen as...

chain like molecule called polymers

22

what are polymers made up of?

monomers

23

how do polymers make they chain of monomers?

through covalent bonding

24

the process of making or breaking polymers is facilitated by what?

enzymes

25

how are monomers connected?

by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other with the loss of a water molecule which is called DEHYDRATION REACTION

26

how are monomers disconnected?

through HYDROLYSIS... the reverse of dehydration reaction so... the bond is broken by the addition of water

27

is there a big amount of different macromolecules or a small amount

a VERY big amount of macromolecules .... there are 40-50 common monomers

28

what do carbohydrates include?

sugars and polymers of sugars

29

what are the simplest carbs?

monosaccharides...the monomers from which more complex carbs are constructed

30

what is it called when two monosaccharides are joined together by a covalent bond?

disaccharides

31

what are polysaccharides?

polymers composed of many sugar building blocks

32

what is the most common monosaccharide?

glucose

33

what is the make up of glucose?

C6H12O6

34

monosaccharides are usually multiples of....

CH2O

35

what are some chemical groups that are trademarks of sugars?

-carbonyl
-hydroxyl

36

what do monosaccharides do for cells?

they are the major nutrient source for cells...cells extract cellular respiration and carbon skeletons are recycled to make other small organic molecules such as amino acids and fatty acids

37

what does the glycosidic linkage pertain to?

specific linkage for sugars

38

what are hexoses?
trioses? and pentoses? (when it comes to the carbon skeleton in sugars)

sugars with 6 carbons
sugars with 3 carbons
sugars with 5 carbons

39

polysaccharides?

polymers with A LOT of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages

40

what do polysaccharides serve as?

-storage material...hyrdrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells
-serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism

41

how do animals and plants store sugar?

in the form of storage saccharides

42

what is starch

glucose polymer for plants
-glucose monomers in starch are joined by 1-4 linkages

43

where is starch stored?

-in plastids...most animals can hydrolyze starch meaning they can later withdraw from this carbohydrate "bank" by hydrolysis

44

where is starch a major source in?

potatoes and grain!

45

what is a polysaccharide animals store?

glycogen

46

where do animals store glycogen?

in their liver and muscle cells

47

organisms build strong materials from...

structural polysaccharides

48

what is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells?

cellulose

49

true or false: cellulose is a polymer of glucose

true

50

what is the carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons?

CHITIN

51

lipids are not considered ____ and do not include true _____

1. macromolecules
2. polymers

52

why are compounds, called lipids, grouped together?

because they mix poorly or not at all in water

53

what are the three types of lipids?

fats, phospholipids, and steroids

54

true or false: lipids are mostly hyrdrophobic molecules with deverse function

true

55

what are fats made up of?

glycerol and fatty acids

56

what type of linkages do fats have?

ester linkage: bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl

57

how are fats made?

three fatty acid molecules are each joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, a bond between a hydroxyl group and carboxyl group....thus what is made is triacylglycerol (consists of three fatty acids and one glyceral molecule)

58

what do saturated and unsaturated fats mean to the structure of fats?

it refers to the structure of the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids...when as many hydrogen (the max) bonds are happening on a carbon skeleton then it is SATURATED. when there are one or more double bonds then there are less hydrogen bonds thus it is called UNSATURATED

59

true or false: not a lot of animal fats are saturated

false. most are

60

how does a fatty acid look like?

hydrocarbon tail and hydrophilic head

61

the major function of a fat is...

-energy storage
-cushions vital organs
-insulates
-more compact fuel than carbohydrates

62

why are phospholipids essential?

because they make up cell membranes

63

what is the difference between a fat and a phospholipid?

phospholipid only has two fatty acids

64

what does a phospholipid look like?

hydrophilic head
hydrophobic tail

65

what do phospholipids self assemble into?

double layered structures called "bilayers"

66

what do phospholipids do for the cell?

it marks the boundaries of the cell and provides a barrier

67

how are steroids characterized?

a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

68

how are steroids distinguished?

by the chemical group that is attached to the ensemble of rings

69

true or false: cholesterol is not important to animals

false..a crucial steroid in animals

70

what is a cholesterol a precursor to?

sex hormones and a variety of other steroids

71

where is cholesterol synthesized

in the liver

72

is cholesterol a component of the cell membrane?

yes

73

why are proteins important?

proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells, and they are instrumental in almost everything organisms do.

74

what are some roles of proteins

-speed up chemical reactions
-role in defense
-storage
-transport
-cellular communication
-movement
-structural support

75

most of enzymes are what?...

PROTEINS

76

polymers of amino acids are....

polypeptides

77

what is a protein

a functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides..(each folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure)

78

what are amino acids made up of?

organic molecules possesing both an AMINO ACID and a CARBOXYL GROUP
*center carbon is called an alpha carbon
-Hydrogen atom
-an R Group (also called the side chain) differs with each amino acid
-only 20 amino acids to choose from

79

what determines the unique characteristics of amino acid?

the side chain...or the R group

80

what is an amino acid?

a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino group

81

what are polypeptide chains?

polymers that are formed when amino acid monomers are linked by peptide bonds

82

what are peptide bonds?

the linkage between amino acids...through dehydration synthesis

83

what is the first level of protein structure?

linear chain of amino acid created by peptide bonds

84

what is the second level of protein structure?

-hydrogen bonds occur between repeating constituents of the backbone..creation of Alpha Helix or Beta pleated

85

what is the third level of protein structure?

R groups begin to bond..repeated folding of backbone

86

what are the 4 types of bonds in the third level of protein structure?

1. weak interactions (van der waals)
2. covalent linkage- Disulfide bridges
3. ionic bonding
4. hydrogen bonds

87

what is the fourth level of protein structure?

interactions of several polypeptides ...some proteins consist of 2 or more polypeptide chains

88

what is sickle cell disease?

a change in the primary structure
-even a slight difference can alter a protein's shape and ability to function

89

what determines protein structure?

-can spontaneously arrange itself into a 3D shape
-can also depend on environment (pH, salt concentration, temp, etc)

90

what is denaturation

when proteins unravel and lose its native shape because of changes in its environment

91

what are chaperonins

they are crucial to the folding of proteins in the cell
---protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins

92

Role of nucleic acids?

make up DNA
-codes for the primary structure of a protein