Flashcards in AP Biology Chapter 4-5*** Deck (92):
what do most organic compounds contain other than carbon?
what is vitalism and was it proven to be true?
the idea that organic compounds arise only in organisms...no this is false. disproved when chemists synthesized these compounds
what is mechanism? and who demonstrated this?
the view that all natural phenomena are governed by physical and chemical laws. Stanley Miller showed in an experiment how the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds could arise from nonliving things
how many electrons does carbon need to be "happy"?
what type of bonds does carbon make?
single or double bonds
the ability of carbon to connect to four other atoms/elements means what?
that is has versatility to make large complex molecules
what are carbons most frequent partners?
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
what are skeletons?
carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules
what are the variations in skeletons?
vary in length, may be unbranched or branched, may have double bonds which can vary in location, can be arranged in rings
are hydrocarbons prevalent in most living organisms?
no but many of a cell's organic molecules have regions consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.
what are characteristics of hydrocarbons?
can undergo reactions that release a relatively large amount of energy.
-atoms of hydrogen are attached to the carbon skeleton wherever electrons are available for covalent bonding
structural isomers differ in mostly what?
the variation in the carbon skeleton. whether its branched or in a ring etc
-also can differ in location of double bond
cis-trans isomers usually involve what?...what does the "cis" mean and what does the "trans" mean
a double bond between two carbon atoms...
1. cis is when the two x's are on the same side
2. trans is when the two x's (or atoms that the carbon is attached to) are on opposite sides
what is an asymmetric carbon?
one that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms
what is the idea of enantiomers
the atoms or groups of atoms can be moved around the carbon in different ways
what are functional groups?
The functional group gives the molecule
its properties... they are centers of chemical reactivity.
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhyrdryl, and phosphate chemical groups are all what.... (having to do with water)
hyrdophillic meaning it makes the molecules easily dissolve into water
the methyl group is what....(having to do with water)
hydrophobic instead what it does is serve as a recognizable tag on biological molecules.
the critically important large molecules of all living things fall into which four main classes?
4. nucleic acids
which of the four main classes of large molecules are categorized as macromolecules?
carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
macromolecules can also be seen as...
chain like molecule called polymers
what are polymers made up of?
how do polymers make they chain of monomers?
through covalent bonding
the process of making or breaking polymers is facilitated by what?
how are monomers connected?
by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other with the loss of a water molecule which is called DEHYDRATION REACTION
how are monomers disconnected?
through HYDROLYSIS... the reverse of dehydration reaction so... the bond is broken by the addition of water
is there a big amount of different macromolecules or a small amount
a VERY big amount of macromolecules .... there are 40-50 common monomers
what do carbohydrates include?
sugars and polymers of sugars
what are the simplest carbs?
monosaccharides...the monomers from which more complex carbs are constructed
what is it called when two monosaccharides are joined together by a covalent bond?
what are polysaccharides?
polymers composed of many sugar building blocks
what is the most common monosaccharide?
what is the make up of glucose?
monosaccharides are usually multiples of....
what are some chemical groups that are trademarks of sugars?
what do monosaccharides do for cells?
they are the major nutrient source for cells...cells extract cellular respiration and carbon skeletons are recycled to make other small organic molecules such as amino acids and fatty acids
what does the glycosidic linkage pertain to?
specific linkage for sugars
what are hexoses?
trioses? and pentoses? (when it comes to the carbon skeleton in sugars)
sugars with 6 carbons
sugars with 3 carbons
sugars with 5 carbons
polymers with A LOT of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
what do polysaccharides serve as?
-storage material...hyrdrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells
-serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism
how do animals and plants store sugar?
in the form of storage saccharides
what is starch
glucose polymer for plants
-glucose monomers in starch are joined by 1-4 linkages
where is starch stored?
-in plastids...most animals can hydrolyze starch meaning they can later withdraw from this carbohydrate "bank" by hydrolysis
where is starch a major source in?
potatoes and grain!
what is a polysaccharide animals store?
where do animals store glycogen?
in their liver and muscle cells
organisms build strong materials from...
what is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells?
true or false: cellulose is a polymer of glucose
what is the carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons?
lipids are not considered ____ and do not include true _____
why are compounds, called lipids, grouped together?
because they mix poorly or not at all in water
what are the three types of lipids?
fats, phospholipids, and steroids
true or false: lipids are mostly hyrdrophobic molecules with deverse function
what are fats made up of?
glycerol and fatty acids
what type of linkages do fats have?
ester linkage: bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl
how are fats made?
three fatty acid molecules are each joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, a bond between a hydroxyl group and carboxyl group....thus what is made is triacylglycerol (consists of three fatty acids and one glyceral molecule)
what do saturated and unsaturated fats mean to the structure of fats?
it refers to the structure of the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids...when as many hydrogen (the max) bonds are happening on a carbon skeleton then it is SATURATED. when there are one or more double bonds then there are less hydrogen bonds thus it is called UNSATURATED
true or false: not a lot of animal fats are saturated
false. most are
how does a fatty acid look like?
hydrocarbon tail and hydrophilic head
the major function of a fat is...
-cushions vital organs
-more compact fuel than carbohydrates
why are phospholipids essential?
because they make up cell membranes
what is the difference between a fat and a phospholipid?
phospholipid only has two fatty acids
what does a phospholipid look like?
what do phospholipids self assemble into?
double layered structures called "bilayers"
what do phospholipids do for the cell?
it marks the boundaries of the cell and provides a barrier
how are steroids characterized?
a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
how are steroids distinguished?
by the chemical group that is attached to the ensemble of rings
true or false: cholesterol is not important to animals
false..a crucial steroid in animals
what is a cholesterol a precursor to?
sex hormones and a variety of other steroids
where is cholesterol synthesized
in the liver
is cholesterol a component of the cell membrane?
why are proteins important?
proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells, and they are instrumental in almost everything organisms do.
what are some roles of proteins
-speed up chemical reactions
-role in defense
most of enzymes are what?...
polymers of amino acids are....
what is a protein
a functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides..(each folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure)
what are amino acids made up of?
organic molecules possesing both an AMINO ACID and a CARBOXYL GROUP
*center carbon is called an alpha carbon
-an R Group (also called the side chain) differs with each amino acid
-only 20 amino acids to choose from
what determines the unique characteristics of amino acid?
the side chain...or the R group
what is an amino acid?
a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino group
what are polypeptide chains?
polymers that are formed when amino acid monomers are linked by peptide bonds
what are peptide bonds?
the linkage between amino acids...through dehydration synthesis
what is the first level of protein structure?
linear chain of amino acid created by peptide bonds
what is the second level of protein structure?
-hydrogen bonds occur between repeating constituents of the backbone..creation of Alpha Helix or Beta pleated
what is the third level of protein structure?
R groups begin to bond..repeated folding of backbone
what are the 4 types of bonds in the third level of protein structure?
1. weak interactions (van der waals)
2. covalent linkage- Disulfide bridges
3. ionic bonding
4. hydrogen bonds
what is the fourth level of protein structure?
interactions of several polypeptides ...some proteins consist of 2 or more polypeptide chains
what is sickle cell disease?
a change in the primary structure
-even a slight difference can alter a protein's shape and ability to function
what determines protein structure?
-can spontaneously arrange itself into a 3D shape
-can also depend on environment (pH, salt concentration, temp, etc)
what is denaturation
when proteins unravel and lose its native shape because of changes in its environment
what are chaperonins
they are crucial to the folding of proteins in the cell
---protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins