Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

AP Biology Semester 1 > Chapter 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (58):
1

what is the "blending" hypothesis?

the idea that genetic material from the two parents blends together and can never go back to what it was before

2

what is the "particulate" hypothesis?

the idea that parents pass on discrete heritable unites (genes)
-explains reappearance of traits after several generations

3

what did mendel discover?

the basic principles of heredity by breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments

4

characters

distinct heritable features (such as flower color)

5

traits

character variants (such as purple or white)

6

true breeding

an organism that always passes down certain phenotypic traits (i.e. physically expressed traits) to its offspring

7

hybridization

two contrasting, true breeding varieties

8

P generation

the true breeding parents

9

F1 generation

hybrid offspring of the P generation

10

F2 generation

when F1 individuals self pollinate or cross pollinate with other F1 hybrids

11

what is the law of segregation?

stating that during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent.
-happens during anaphase 1 of meiosis 1

12

what is the ratio that mendel came up with for the offspring of the f1 generation

3:1

13

alternative versions of genes account for ______ in inherited characters

variations

14

alleles

alternative versions of a gene

15

each gene resides at a specific ____ on a specific chromosome

locus

16

for each character, an organism inherits ___ alleles

two (one from each parent)

17

if the two alleles at a locus differ, then the _____ allele determines the organism's appearance, and the ______ allele has no noticeable effect on appearance.

-dominant
-recessive

18

homozygous

An organism with two identical alleles for a character

19

heterozygous

An organism that has two different alleles for a gene

20

true or false: heterozygous is true breeding

false

21

phenotype

physical appearance

22

genotype

genetic makeup

23

testcross

breeding the mystery individual with a homozygous recessive individual

24

monohybrids

individuals that are heterozygous for one character

25

monohybrid cross

cross between monohybrids

26

dihybrids

heterozygous for two characters

27

dihybrid cross

a cross between two dihybrids....can determine whether 2 characters are transmitted to offspring as a package or independently

28

law of independent assortment

each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
--Strictly speaking, this law applies only to genes on different, nonhomologous chromosomes or those far apart on the same chromosome
---Genes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
EXAMPLE:
Hh hH
J j or J j

29

Multiplication rule

the probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilities

30

Addition rule

states that the probability that any one of two or more exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities (uses words either/or)

31

complete dominance

occurs when phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are
identical....the dominant is the only one apparent in physical terms

32

incomplete dominance

the phenotype of F1 hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes of
the two parental varieties....two dominant alleles are mixed together to create a certain phenotype such as straight and curly hair = wavy hair (something like this)

33

what is codominance

two dominant alleles affect the phenotype in separate distinguished ways....both dominant alleles show up such as when you have alleles for both straight and curly hair and they both show up on your hair, some strands straight and some curly (something like this)

34

remember !!!

A dominant allele does not subdue a recessive allele

35

Tay-Sachs disease
-what does it look like @ the organismal level
-biochemical level
-molecular level

organismal level: asymptomatic-shows no symptoms because normal allele is dominant so covers for tay sachs
biochem: normal allele makes correct protein (an enzyme) so accumulation does not occur in brain
molecular: one normal allele on one chromosome and one tay sach allele on the other...normal allele is dominant

36

what are the three alleles for blood types

A, B, and O

37

what does blood type A look like

a red blood cell that has a tag (a carbohydrate) that represents that it is A blood type

38

what does blood type B look like?

a red blood cell that has a tag (a carb) that represents that it is B blood type

39

what does AB blood type look like?

a red blood cell that has two tags, one that represents A and the other that represents B

40

what does the O blood type look like?

it has no tags...just the red blood cell

41

pleiotropy

multiple phenotypic effects... when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits..... a mutation in a pleiotropic gene may have an effect on some or all traits simultaneously.

42

true or false: some traits may be determined by two or more genes

true

43

epistasis
what ratio does it have?

a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second
locus
-example: the golden retrievers that should be black or brown but have a gene that prevents this
9:3:4

44

quantitative characters

characters that vary in the population along a continuum

45

polygenic inheritance

an additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype
-so two or more genes affect the phenotype of someone

46

norm of reaction

the phenotypic range of a genotype influenced by the environment
ex)hydrangea flowers of the same genotype range from blue-violet to pink depending on soil

47

multifactorial

when genetic and environmental factors collectively influence phenotype

48

pedigree

a family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations

49

carriers

heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically normal

50

albinism

a recessive condition characterized by a lack of pigmentation in skin and hair

51

consanguineous mating
-what is it and why is it bad

incest
-it is bad because it increases the change of mating between two carriers of the same bad and rare allele

52

cystic fibrosis

cystic fibrosis allele results in defective or absent chloride transport channels in plasma membranes leading to a buildup of chloride ions outside the cell
--symptoms include mucus buildup in some internal organs and abnormal absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.
----serious breathing problems

53

sickle cell disease

-caused by the substitution of ONE amino acid in the hemoglobin protein the the red blood cells
--in homozygous individuals all hemoglobin is abnormal (sickle cell)
----symptoms include physical weakness, pain, organ damage, bursting of cells
-people heterozygous for this are usually healthy but may have some symptoms

54

true or false: some human disorders are caused by dominant alleles

true

55

what is achondroplasia

a form of dwarfism caused by rare dominant allele....NEVER HOMOZYGOUS FOR DOMINANT ALLELE BECAUSE THAT IS LETHAL

56

Huntington's disease

-a degenerative disease of the nervous system
--no phenotypic effects until the individual is about 35 to 40 years of age
-irreversible and fatal
-don't know until later in life which is why people pass on the allele for this disease, because they don't know they have it until later on in life after having kids

57

amniocentesis

the liquid that bathes the fetus is removed and tested for any disease the fetus might have when born....look at the karyotype

58

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

a sample of the placenta is removed and tested ....scrape DNA material from placenta (an organ you grow when pregnant)